PDF version here!

Tallinn, May 11th and 12th 2023

Thursday, May 11th

09.00 Welcome, coffee and snacks
09.30 Opening words: Prof. Lauri Mälksoo (University of Tartu)

Keynote: Hybrid Threats – legal issues, challenges and solutions, as seen from the perspective of the Oslo Manual on Select Topics of the Law of Armed Conflict and the Revision of the San Remo Manual

Judge Advocate General (ret.) Arne Willy Dahl (Honorary President of the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War)

Panel 1. Is there a Need for a Legal Concept of Hybrid Naval Warfare?


Some Legal Implications of the Concept of “Hybrid” Naval Warfare

Prof. em. Said Mahmoudi (Stockholm University)



The Concept of Military Activities in the Law of the Sea

Dr. Pierre Thévenin (University of Tartu)

11.00 Discussion: Moderator Prof. Tiina Pajuste (Tallinn University)
11.40 Lunch

Panel 2. The Threshold for the Applicability of the Law of Naval Warfare


Topic TBD

Prof. Anna Petrig (University of Basel)


Topic TBD

Assoc. Prof. René Värk (University of Tartu)


Self-Defence and Countermeasures to Hybrid Threats under Jus ad Bellum

Hon. Prof. Stuart Maslen (University of Pretoria)


Discussion: Moderator Dean Prof. Tore Henriksen (UiT)

14.40 Coffee Break

Panel 3. The Legal Resilience of Critical Offshore Infrastructure to Hybrid Threats


Are sabotage of submarine pipelines an ‘armed attack’ triggering a right to self-defence?

Prof. em. Geir Ulfstein (University of Oslo)


Securing Critical Offshore Energy Infrastructures from Hybrid Threats: Norway’s Regulatory Approaches

Assoc. Prof. Maria Madalena das Neves (NCLOS)


Nord Stream Gas Pipelines

Prof. Timo Koivurova  (University of Lapland)

16.00 Discussion: Moderator Prof. Lauri Mälksoo (University of Tartu)
16.40 Closing of Day I: Prof. Ingvild Ulrikke Jakobsen (NCLOS)
17.30 Dinner for panelists

Friday, May 12th

Panel 4. Hybrid Threats to International Navigation


Welcome, coffee and snacks


Flag State Responsibility for Compliance with the Collision Regulations and other International Standards

Dr. David Goddard (UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office, Ocean and Overseas Territories Team, Assistant Legal Adviser)


Hybrid Threats and Autonomous Ships - Legal Challenges

Prof. Henrik Ringbom (Åbo Akademi University, University of Oslo)


Challenges with Autonomous Ships from the Perspective of Coastal State Jurisdiction

Dr. Iva Parlov


Hybrid-World War and the Governance of the Northern Sea Route

Dr. Jan Solski (NCLOS)


Discussion: Moderator Dr. Alexander Lott (NCLOS & University of Tartu)

11.00 Coffee break

Panel 5. Legal Resilience to Hybrid Threats at the Domestic, EU and NATO Levels


Adapting to Hybrid Threats at the Level of Domestic Legislation: Estonia’s Example

Mrs. Margit Gross (Ministry of Defence, Undersecretary for Legal and Administrative Affairs)


Legal Resilience to the Protection of Human Rights at Sea in view of Hybrid Threats

Asst. Prof. Sofia Galani (Panteion University & University of Bristol)


Towards collective legal resilience in the cyber domain – the role of international organizations

Dr. Ágnes Kasper (NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, Chief of Law Branch; Tallinn University of Technology, Senior Lecturer)


Discussion: Moderator Prof. Tanel Kerikmäe (Tallinn University of Technology)

12.50 Coffee break

Round table: Moderators Prof. Tore Henriksen (UiT) and Dr. Alexander Lott (NCLOS)

Panelists: Judge Advocate General (ret.) Arne Willy Dahl, Prof. Anna Petrig (University of Basel), Ms. Margit Gross (Estonian Ministry of Defence), Cdr. Stanislas Frenzel (NATO Maritime Command), Prof. Magne Frostad (UiT)

14.00 Closing of conference

For guests who are not leaving Tallinn in the afternoon, a guided walking tour is organized in Tallinn’s Old Town.