Is there one driving force of animal evolution that explains the immense diversity of life and can it also help us to understand the exceptional success of parasitic species that affect us?
The underlying and very strong feature of both processes seems in fact to be very small: microRNAs. Since the discovery that they are found in all animals and regulate important biological processes about 20 years ago, these tiny fine-tuners of cellular programs are among the most studied molecules ever. However, with more than 16,000 annual publications in 2021, the rapidly growing microRNA field became riddled with contradicting reports that hindered novel discoveries and applications. In the recent research of Dr. Bastian Fromm, this was addressed with the microRNA gene database MirGeneDB and the foundations to transform the microRNA field from a qualitative research area to the quantitative level, and ask fundamental questions, were laid.
In this TFS project, Dr. Fromm and his group will use novel sequencing approaches, state of the art single cell experiments and take advantage of the unique biodiversity in Tromso, to deepen the understanding of animal evolution, and parasites in particular. Using microRNAs, open questions in systematics and gene-regulation will be addressed. Facilitated by the ancient DNA laboratory at the Museum, and the Museum's collection, the Fromm lab will further set out to use microRNAs in the novel research line paleotranscriptomics that, for the first time, enables gene expression studies in long-dead biological material.