autumn 2024
JUR-3619 Energy and Climate Change Law - 15 ECTS

Type of course

The course is part of the Joint Nordic Master´s programme in Environmental Law (NOMPEL), cf. Education plan with regulations for the Joint Nordic Master Programme in Environmental Law.

Only students admitted to the Joint Nordic Master´s programme in Environmental Law (NOMPEL) may register for this course.

Course content

Climate change, caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs), is one of the greatest threats to humankind. Failure to mitigate GHGs not only compounds the effects of climate change that are already being felt, but it can also lead to catastrophic consequences. High levels of anthropogenic GHGs are inextricably linked to unsustainable patterns of energy production and consumption. Consequently, in the carbon-constrained world of climate change mitigation, serious efforts must be made in terms of energy transition. That is, it is imperative to curb the demand for energy, to use energy more efficiently, and to develop and use cleaner forms of energy. At the same time, given that energy is paramount for the socio-economic development of countries and for the welfare of their citizens, the regulation of the energy sector to meet the challenge of climate change must also strike a balance with sustainable development and energy security concerns.

This course provides students with a comprehensive understanding of the policy context and of the key legal framework that underpins the intricate relationship between climate change and energy. On the back of an overview of the international legal framework that can both enable or pose challenges to energy transition (especially the international climate change regime and the law of the sea), this course focuses on selected energy law topics that are of particular relevance in the context of energy transition: renewable energy and micro and distributed generation; energy efficiency; emissions trading; and carbon capture and storage/carbon capture usage and storage. Emphasis will be placed on the legal aspects of the energy transition within the European Union (EU). In addition, where appropriate, other relevant legal and regulatory aspects connected to the aforementioned selected topics will be discussed.

The course covers the following topics:

1. The nature and structure of the energy sector

2. The links between climate change, sustainable development, and energy

3. The international legal framework for energy transition (the climate change regime and the law of the sea)

4. Renewable energy, micro and distributed generation

5. Energy efficiency

6. Emissions trading

7. Carbon capture and storage/carbon capture, usage and storage

Objectives of the course


A student who successfully completes the course shall have acquired:

  • knowledge of the nature and structure of the energy sector
  • advanced knowledge of the interdependence between climate change and energy;
  • advanced knowledge of the international legal framework (the climate change regime and the law of the sea) as relevant for the energy sector/transition
  • knowledge of the climate change and energy policies of the EU and selected States
  • advanced knowledge of the legal and regulatory regimes for renewable energy, energy efficiency,emissions trading, and carbon capture and storage/carbon capture usage and storage;


A student who successfully completes the course is able to:

  • identify and analyze legal problems of both a theoretical and practical character related to the energy transition and climate change
  • apply knowledge of energy and climate change law,and regulatory concepts in a critical and independent way;
  • evaluate and critically discuss the adequacy or limitations of the applicable law in enabling energy transition and climate change mitigation;
  • identify legal solutions fostering the energy transition from fossil-based into a sustainable, low carbon, and resource efficient economy;
  • construct and communicate legal reasoning, orally and in writing, in a clear and precise manner;
  • apply legal methodology to analyze energy and climate change questions

General competence:

A student who successfully completes the course will be able to:

  • apply the knowledge and skills obtained in the field of energy and climate change law individually and in cooperation with others;
  • communicate reasoning within the field of energy and climate change law in a clear and precise manner, both orally and in writing;
  • apply knowledge and skills acquired on energy and climate change law globally and in different practical settings;
  • identify and reflect on ethical dilemmas that may arise within energy and climate change law, and deal with these in a responsible manner

Language of instruction and examination


Teaching methods

This course uses interactive and dynamic teaching methods. The course will consist of both lectures and seminars comprising a total of 30 hours. Guest lectures may be included as an addition. The seminars are primarily based on a set of problem-based practical cases. In addition, students can also be requested to present a given topic.

Students are encouraged to participate actively during the lectures and seminars. Students are expected to be prepared for lectures and seminars by studying the corresponding literature of the curriculum. Students should study independently in periods when there are no lectures or seminars.



Examination: Date: Duration: Grade scale:
Off campus exam 05.12.2024 09:00 (Hand out)
05.12.2024 15:00 (Hand in)
6 Hours A–E, fail F

Coursework requirements:

To take an examination, the student must have passed the following coursework requirements:

Group assignment and oral presentation Approved – not approved
Individual take home assignment Approved – not approved
UiT Exams homepage

More info about the coursework requirements

The students admitted to the NOMPEL programme are required to complete a project assignment on ‘energy and climate change regulation and policy in a Nordic context’, and have it accepted as adequate before they can take the exam. This project assignment has two mandatory components: i) group work with a final group oral presentation; and ii) an individual report of maximum 5 pages with the student’s reflections on the assignment and regulatory and policy recommendations. The purpose of this project assignment is to encourage the students to think critically; to find solutions to challenging problems related to balancing energy and climate change considerations; and to develop skills in planning, research, oral and written communication, and individual and group work ethic. This assignment also intends to prepare the students for the final exam.

In assessing whether the work requirement is approved, the following criteria will be used:

  • Identification, formulation and discussion of legal and policy questions;
  • Application of the knowledge gained in the different topics of the course to practical problems raised in the project assignment;
  • Ability to devise regulatory and policy solutions for energy and climate change related problems;
  • Presentation and communication of legal and policy arguments in a clear and precise manner both orally and in writing.

The evaluation of whether the work requirement is approved is based on an overall assessment of these criteria. The assessment consists of an integrated evaluation of the group work with oral presentation, and the individual report.

Re-sit examination

Students who do not pass the previous ordinary examination can gain access to a re-sit examination.

  • About the course
  • Campus: Tromsø |
  • ECTS: 15
  • Course code: JUR-3619
  • Tidligere år og semester for dette emnet