Non-Commercial Values Attached to Marine Resources in the Coastal Zone

Nature Value

What is the value of nature?

 Conflicts in the coastal zone (CZ) and about marine resources can be expected to increase in the future. Simultaneously, there is a lack of relevant data on the non-commercial use and valuation of the CZ Resources.

Kayaking is one of many activities that take place in the coastal zone. Photo: Jan Børre Henriksen

This project will supply data on local inhabitants values attached to marine resources in the coastal zone. The data collected will be of a quality which make them suitable as input in models and management processes regarding utilization of CZ resources.

 
Margrethe Aanesen; head researcher for Nature Value, enjoys kayaking. Photo: Ernst Kruger
 

The project concentrates data collection and application to the three northernmost counties in Norway. By the use of the technique benefit-transfer they can be transferred to other parts of Norway. Results from the project will be relevant for local authorities’ coastal zone planning processes, and national authorities’ management of marine resources.

 

Past events

The Nature Value start-up seminar was held 29. - 30. October in 2013 in Tromsø, at the Norwegian College of Fisheries Science (NFH).  

NFH in winter. Photo: Tone Osnes

The seminar started with the lecture "The fight for space in the coastal zone", which was held by Jahn Petter Johnsen and Bjørn Hersoug, both from NFH.

After a short break Margrethe Aanesen informed the participants about Nature Value's large scale discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey, while Dugald Tinch talked about possible pitfalls ehile designing DCE surveys. The formulation of the DCE survey was discussed before the seminar participants visited one of Tromsø's better seafood restaurants; Fiskekompagniet.

The following morning Margrethe started the seminar by talking about combining DCE surveys with citizens' juries, before Hege Westskog held a lecture titled "Combining quantitative and qualitative methodes in valuation projects". 

After a short break the work with formulating the DCE survey continued and was concluded after lunch.

Participating in Nature Value's start-up seminar: Eirik Mikkelsen, Trude Borch, Johanne S. Borch, Claire Armstrong, Jannike Falk-Petersen, Erlend D. Sandorf, Torbjørn Schei, Dugald Tinch, Bjrøn Hersoug, Jahn Petter Johnsen, Hege Westskog and Margrethe Aanesen. 

Autumn 2015

In October 2015 we implemented a discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey electronically. The survey was sent to about 3000 inhabitants in the three northernmost counties of Norway: Nordland, Troms and Finnmark. In the survey we asked people about their activities in the coastal zone, during summer and during winter. We also asked them about their perception of the quality of the coastal zone at those locations they used the most. As part of the survey we showed the participants choice cards (see below) where we asked them to tick off the scenario they liked the most. Finally, people were asked about their view on the development of commercial activities in the coastal zone, and personal characteristics.  

The survey was open for about a month, and by the closing day 1009 persons had responded.

We are currently in the process of analyzing the data and develop both a scientific paper and a popular version where we present major results. 

A choice card example

A choice card is a card where the respondents are asked to choose one of a few (three) scenario for the development in e.g. an environmental good (ecosystem service). The development is explained by a few (2-5) attributes. The good we set out to value was the coastal zone, or a particular beach or area on the coast, which the respondent used for recreational activities. We described the development of the beach seascape by four attributes:

1) Is it possible to see commercial facilities like aquaculture plants or fishing tourism installations?

2) Amount of waste on the beach.

3) Amount of fish caught during a day fishing from boat.

4) The number of new jobs created by increased commercial activities on the coast.

People could choose the status quo, which indicated what might happen if no efforts were taken to prevent negative environmental effects of commercial activities in the coastal zone. This option could be chosen at no costs. There were two alternative options, describing a more pro-active management of the coastal zone to prevent some potential negative environmental effects. These would come at a cost and with fewer new jobs generated by commercial activities on the coast. An example of a choice card is shown below. People were asked to choose the scenario they preferred. There were 8 choice cards in the survey, which the respondents were asked to fill out. With 1009 respondents, this means we have a dataset with 8072 observations. By the use of statistical modelling we can derive peoples’ willingness-to-pay for the four attributes, and for implementing a scenario different from the status quo.      

 

Winter/spring 2016

During February-March we implemented in-depth interviews with 8 persons in Tromsø municipality and 8 persons in Flakstad municipality in Lofoten. The interviews aimed at yielding a deeper understanding of how people reasoned about exploitation of marine resources in the coastal zone, both by private and commercial activities. To make the interview situation as relaxing and “familiar” as possible, the interviews were made in peoples’ homes. During the interview we asked about activities the respondent took part in located in the coastal zone and how frequent they were. We also asked the interviewees to place cards with statements about the use of the coast on a line from disagree, via indifferent, to agree. This task is part of the q-sort method, and aims at teasing out controversial aspects regarding the use of the coastal zone. Typical statements we used were:  “Marine tourism fishing has affected the possibilities for recreational activities on the coast negatively”. “The aquaculture industry is of such importance that it must be allowed to expand on the coast”. “There is enough place for recreational activities on the coast”. Below is shown a picture of how one respondent placed the 18 statements along the agree-disagree line.  

Q-sort method 

Autumn 2016

In order to get a better grasp of which associations respondents get when filling out the DCE survey we implemented a face-to-face follow-up of the electronic survey from 2015. The follow-up survey is implemented at one of the most popular beaches for local inhabitants to visit in Lofoten, the Kvalvika beach in Flakstad municipality. This follow-up survey has revealed interesting results regarding respondents’ associations with the attributes used on the choice cards.    

   

Avslutningsseminar og resultat

7-8. november 2016

Mandag 7. og tirsdag 8.november var det avslutningsseminar for prosjektet ved Norges Fiskerihøgskole. Seminaret blei åpnet av adm.dir. ved fiskerihøgskolen Kathrine Tveiterås. Deretter hadde fiskeriminister Per Sandberg et åpningsinnlegg, der han informerte om synspunkt på særlig lakseoppdrettsnæringa framover.

 

Den faglige delen bestod av fire presentasjoner av resultat fra prosjektet:

Først presenterte prosjektleder Margrethe Aanesen resultat fra en stor kvantitativ undersøkelse om folks avveininger mellom næringsaktiviteter og miljøkvaliteter i kystsonen. Hovedresultatet her var at folk sa ja takk til begge deler. Næringsaktiviteter, eksemplifisert ved lakseoppdrettsnæringa og marin fisketurisme, kan gjerne vokse, men næringsaktivitetene må være strengt regulert og det er viktig at de som eventuelt forurenser betaler for skadene de påfører miljøet. Det viktigste for respondentene var at det ikke blei mer forsøpling i strandsonen.

Margrethe Aanesen presenterer prosjektet

Deretter presenterte forskningsleder ved Cicero Hege Westskog resultat fra en kvalitativ undersøkelse med dybdeintervju med folk i Tromsø og Lofoten (Leknes). Her viste det seg at folk gjør utstrakt bruk av kysten til svært mange ting. Mange er mindre skeptiske til næringsutbygging i kystsonen enn de er til fortetting i strandsonen ved at folk bygger hytter der og stenger ferdselen for andre. Et annet svært spennende resultat fra denne undersøkelsen er hvordan bruken av «fjæra» går i arv gjennom generasjoner og hvordan verdier knyttet til kystsonen på denne måten blir overført fra generasjon til generasjon.

Hege Westskog presenterer resultat fra en kvalitativ undersøkelse 

Tirsdagen presenterte forsker ved Norut Jannike Falk-Andersson resultat fra en Q-sort studie, kombinert med informasjon fra både den kvantitative og kvalitative undersøkelsen. Hennes resultat underbygget resultatene fra de to forgående undersøkelsene; folk ønsker begge deler, både næringsaktivitet og steder for rekreasjon i kystsonen. Også denne undersøkelsen viser at folk legger vekt på at økt næringsaktivitet må foregå under strenge reguleringer og ikke gå på bekostning av miljøet.

Den siste presentasjonen fra prosjektet stod forskningsdirektør ved Norut Eirik Mikkelsen for. Han la fra tall for lakseoppdrettsnæringa i Troms fylke. Næringa har hatt en stor volummessig økning det siste ti-året. I tillegg har en hatt økt salgspris, noe som fører til betydelige overskudd i næringa. På den andre siden gjør næringa en stor del av sine innkjøp lokalt og ellers i fylket, noe som betyr ringvirkninger i den øvrige økonomien. Resultatene for den totale økonomisk effekten av oppdrettsnæringa i Troms er ennå ikke ferdig, så de tallene må vi vente på til utgangen av året.

Seminaret ble avsluttet ved at forsker ved Norut, Jannike Falk-Andersson presenterte et nytt forskningsprosjekt som tar for seg marint søppel på og rundt Svalbard.

 

 

PUBLICATIONS

Work in progress:

Margrethe Aanesen, Jannike Falk-Andersson, Kofi Vondolia, Trude Borch, Ståle Navrud, Dugald Tinch: Valuing the coastal zone for private recreational services. The case of Northern Norway.

Hege Westskog, Jannike Falk-Andersson, Margrethe Aanesen: The private use of the coast: Commercial vs bequest values.

Marina Boboedova, Margrethe Aanesen, Eirik Mikkelsen: Economic analysis of the aquaculture industry. Which economic values are generated in local municipalities?

 

Ansvarlig for prosjektet: Margrethe Aanesen

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