Pågående forskningsprosjekter med data fra SAMINOR-undersøkelsen

Dutkanprošeavttat mat leat jođus ja main geavahuvvojit dutkandieđut SAMINOR-iskkadeamis

Ongoing research projects using data from the SAMINOR Study

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8010.00053. Forekomst av selvmordsatferd og selvskading blant samer og nordmenn i Nord-Norge.

Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: ANNE SILVIKEN.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summary: Suicide rates in the Arctic region are in general high, and the highest rates are found among some indigenous populations, and the rates are especially high among young indigenous males aged 15-24 years old. A significant moderate increased risk for suicide was found among Sami in Northern Norway in the time period 1970-1998 (estimated suicide rate 19 per 100 000 p.y.) (Silviken, Haldorsen & Kvernmo, 2006). On the other hand, another study from the North Norwegian Youth Study found no ethnic differences in prevalence of suicide attempts between Sami adolescents and their non-Sami peers in Arctic Norway (Silviken & Kvernmo, 2007). The prevalence of suicide ideation, attempts and self-harm, has never before been explored in the Sami and Norwegian populations in Northern Norway in a systematic way. This study is based on a population-based study on health and living conditions in areas with mixed Sami and Norwegian settlements - the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study. The aims of the study are to explore: 1) The prevalence of bereaved after suicide in Northern Norway. 2) The lifetime prevalence of suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation and attempts) and Self-harm among the adult population in Northern Norway, and to examine: A) Differences due to gender, age, ethnicity, and cultural context, B) Differences between gender and age groups with regard to method (suicide attempts), suicidal intention, contact with health services and whether they were intoxicated (alcohol/drug) when attempting suicide.

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8010.00060. NordTRO: Hvordan religiøs bakgrunn og/eller egen religiøs identitet påvirker helserelatert atferd, selvmordsatferd og bruk av helsetjenester i en multietnisk voksenpopulasjon i Nord-Norge.

Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: ANNA RITA SPEIN.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summary: Religion is often debated in negative ways in media. The themes can be sexual abuse in Laestadian communities or abuse of spiritual power by congregational leaders. Nonetheless, the majority of both Norwegian and international research have shown that personal belief, religious affiliation and participation in religious activities, often is associated with better somatic and mental health parameters, also across age and study design. However, the differences across religions and religious groupings, and across ethnic and cultural groups, are huge, complicated by confounding factors. There are also examples of some religious beliefs and congregational structures being associated with higher rates of anxiety and depression. Finnmark has the highest population rate of Saami in Norway, but also the highest rates of obesity, smoking and suicide among males. Adult Laestadians have reported having worse health than other religious groups. There is a lack of empirical knowledge from Northern Norway about the positive and negative effects of religious indicators (i.e. family background, group affiliation, personal belief and religious activity) on health, and at the same time adjusting for ethnicity. Laestadian youth, independent of ethnicity, drink less alcohol. NordTRO is a quantitative project based on data from SAMINOR 2, a questionnaire survey on health in areas of mixed Saami and Norwegian settlement from 2012. A total of 11.600 persons in the age of 18-69 (22% response rate) participated. 34% reported some kind of Saami affiliation. 

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8010.00082. Mental health in the Sámi and non-Sámi populations of Norway from 2004 to 2012.

Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: TROND HEIR.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summary: The UN's Office for Indigenous Peoples' Rights has pointed out that indigenous peoples' health and living conditions are worse than those of the majority populations. Our study explores the course of mental health in an indigenous Sami population in Norway, compared to the non-Sami population living in the same geographical area. More specifically, the study aims to compare the course of psychological distress and alcohol use from 2004 to 2012 in the Sami population with that of the non-Sami population.

Cultural alienation and lack of cultural support, as well as an increase in alcohol consumption in the general population during the last decades, might suggest an increase in mental health problems. On the other hand, a Sámi revitalization process that took place in the Sami society itself, might suggest the opposite. Our study has a two-time cross-sectional, cross-cultural design. Quantitative data are taken from two large questionnaire surveys on health and living conditions in areas with both Sami and Norwegian populations, the SAMINOR 1 and SAMINOR 2. The number of informants in SAMINOR 1 is 16865 (response rate 60%), and in SAMINOR 2, 11600 (response rate 27%). The data will be divided into age groups of 10 years and each age group at the first wave (2004) will be compared to the identical age group at the second wave (2012).
The study will provide better knowledge of how health conditions develop in the Sami populations and generate hypotheses about how a society in change affects mental health of indigenous people.

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8010.00084. Vold og overgrep og helse i flerkulturelle samfunn

Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: ASTRID ERIKSEN.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summary: Interpersonal violence is recognized as a reliable long-term predictor of adverse health outcomes. Information on mental health issues in various ethnic groups of Northern Norway is sparse. The Population-based Study on Health and Living conditions in Regions with Sami and Norwegian populations – The SAMINOR Study performed among the rural multi-ethnic population in Northern Norway was designed in an effort to address the lack of health information about the indigenous people in Norway – the Sami. The study consists of two cross-sectional surveys, SAMINOR 1 and SAMINOR 2, both conducted within an epidemiological methodological framework. The SAMINOR Study includes several public health related themes with an interdisciplinary approach.

The present project on mental health and interpersonal violence will fit in with the strategies of the Norwegian Health Authority, as it will bring new knowledge regarding psychosocial health among the Sami and non-Sami population living in rural areas in Northern Norway, and also Sami living in urban areas. In the proposed project, based on data from the SAMINOR Study and the Fra bygd til by survey, we will study interpersonal violence and psychosocial health.

The proposed study, build on the information collected through these health surveys. In addition, the proposed study provides an opportunity to link a person’s ethnicity to information in national health registers, facilitated by the national 11-digit unique personal identification number.  

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8030.00091. Physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors and mortality in ethnic groups in Finnmark County, Norway.

Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: RUNE HERMANSEN.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summary: Finnmark county has had the highest coronary and total mortality in Norway. Reports have shown that the cholesterol level was higher than national average and the proportion smokers was the highest in Norway. Samis were more physical active and had lower heart rate than Norse in data from 1987. The lower heart rate among Samis, could be a result of a higher aerob activity at work and better fitness. We want to examine if these findings could give health benefits on hard end-points as cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.

Publikasjoner/Publications:

Hermansen R, Broderstad AR, Jacobsen BK, Mähönen M, Wilsgaard T, Morseth B. The impact of changes in leisure time physical activity on changes in cardiovascular risk factors: results from The Finnmark 3 Study and SAMINOR 1, 1987–2003. Int J Circumpolar Health 2018, 77:1, 1459145.

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8030.00120. Self-reported myocardial infarction in Sami and non-Sami populations in northern Norway. The SAMINOR study.

Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: ANN RAGNHILD BRODERSTAD.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summary: The main aim of this postdoc project is to present the prevalence of self-reported myocardial infarction by sex among Sami and non-Sami populations in 10 municipalities in northern Norway. A secondary aim is to assess if/how biological and behavioural risk factors – in particular socioeconomic status (SES) – impact the disease distributions. Data from the SAMINOR 1 study of 2003–2004 and the SAMINOR 2 clinical study of 2012–2014, shall be used. Despite a growing literature, we still do not know how the various populations in northern Norway are doing with regard to cardiovascular risk and disease burden. This merits studies exploring potential ethnic and regional diversity in cardiovascular health in this region. Ethnicity is rarely a source of causal knowledge but is directly or indirectly related to factors such as culture, diet, lifestyle, access to and concordance with health care advice, stress, and socioeconomic status. The latter is an extremely powerful predictor of premature heart disease. The SAMINOR 1 sample is considered representative for the general population in the rural areas of northern Norway. Analyses of non-response in the SAMINOR 2 clinical study is to be done; an overall concordance between responders and non-responders with regard to variables relevant to population health is however expected. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. The project was approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics, north division (REC North). The manuscripts shall be submitted to relevant scientific journals.

Prosjektendring/Project changes: Principal investigator changed from Bent-Martin Eliassen to Ann Ragnhild Broderstad.

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8030.00124. Cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in the multi-ethnic population of Northern Norway. (Opprinnelig tittel: Socioeconomic status and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the multi-ethnic population of Northern Norway.)

Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: ANN RAGNHILD BRODERSTAD.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summary: By using data from the SAMINOR 1 study (2003–2004) and the SAMINOR 2 clinical study (2012–2014), we propose to calculate and assess the total risk of CVD in the multi-ethnic population of Northern Norway in two cross sections. This is to be done by using conventional biological risk factors, NORRISK (norsk risikomodell) and other appropriate CVD risk models such as the Framingham risk score. We also suggest linking SAMINOR 1 data with endpoint data from the Cardiovascular Disease in Norway (CVDNOR) project and the Norwegian Causes of Death Register as to evaluated total risk for CVD and CVD death within a period of 5–6 years. Another aim is to explore if the proposed risk assessments varies by socioeconomic status. Despite a growing body of literature, we still do not know how the various populations in northern Norway are doing with regard to cardiovascular risk and disease burden. This merits studies exploring potential ethnic diversity in cardiovascular health in this region. The SAMINOR 1 sample is considered representative for the general population in the rural areas of northern Norway. Analyses of non-response in the SAMINOR 2 clinical study is to be done; an overall concordance between responders and non-responders with regard to variables relevant to population health is however expected. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. The project was approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics, north division (REC North). The manuscripts shall be submitted to relevant scientific journals.

Prosjektendring/Project changes: 

1) By linking SAMINOR 1 and SAMINOR 2 The clinical survey we propose to follow individuals having participated in both surveys (n= ~3000), and explore if there over time are any ethnic differences (Sami vs non-Sami) in the levels of the following CVD risk factors: smoking, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, ApoB/ApoA-1, blood pressure and resting heart rate. 2) Using baseline data from SAMINOR 1, and endpoint data from the CVDNOR project, Norwegian Patient Registry and the Norwegian Causes of Death Registry, we shall assess if there are ethnic differences (Sami vs. non-Sami) in CVD (ICD 10: I00–99) incidence (main or secondary hospital discharge diagnoses, or out-of-hospital deaths [underlying cause]) over a 12–14 years period (2003/2004–2016).

Principal investigator changed from Bent-Martin Eliassen to Ann Ragnhild Broderstad.

Publikasjoner/Publications:

Siri SRA, Braaten T, Jacobsen BK, Melhus M, Eliassen BM. Distribution of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the estimated 10-year risk of acute myocardial infarction or cerebral stroke in Sami and non-Sami populations: The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey. Scand J Public Health 2018: 1403494818773534. Published online 27 May 2018.

Siri SRA, Eliassen BM, Jacobsen BK, Melhus M, Broderstad AR, Michalsen VL, Braaten T. Changes in conventional cardiovascular risk factors and the estimated 10-year risk of acute myocardial infarction or cerebral stroke in Sami and non-Sami populations in two population-based cross-sectional surveys: the SAMINOR Study. BMJ Open 2019; 9:e028939. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-028939.

Siri SRA, Eliassen BM, Broderstad AR, Melhus M, Michalsen VL, Jacobsen BK, Burchill LJ. Coronary heart disease and stroke in the Sami and non-Sami populations in rural Northern and Mid Norway—the SAMINOR Study. Open Heart 2020; 7:e001213. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2019-001213.

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8030.00130. Fedme og overvekt i Helse- og levekårsundersøkelsen SAMINOR i områder med samisk og norsk besetting.
Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: ANN RAGNHILD BRODERSTAD.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summary: Obesity is one of the main health indicators measured in the SAMINOR Study performed among the rural population in Northern Norway and the Sami population in particular. The survey is a public health investigation conducted within the epidemiological methodological framework with both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. The SAMINOR Study has been carried through twice. The first SAMINOR Study demonstrated a high prevalence of overweight and obesity. Obesity is a strong indicator for developing several chronic lifestyle diseases such as diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris and cancer. In the present study we will estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in both SAMINOR 1 and SAMINOR 2 clinical part. Body mass index and waist circumference are used as unit of measurement in both surveys.

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8030.00139. Langvarig smerte i en samisk og ikke-samisk befolkning.
Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: ELIN DAMSGÅRD.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summary: Persistent pain is the most common reason for sick leave and disability pension in Norway, with major economic costs to society as well as suffering for those affected. Pain is more frequent in groups with low income and low education as well as in women compared to men, and it is associated with psychological factors. Northern Norway is a multicultural society with several municipalities characterized by Sami or Kven populations. There is a lack of knowledge about the prevalence of persistent pain and associated factors in the different ethnic groups. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to identify and compare pain and associated factors in a population based study with participants of sami, non sami and kven background. Knowledge in this area will contribute to form the basis of preventative and treatment strategies for persistent pain. The project is a collaboration between with the Centre for Sami Health Research (SSHF) at the University of Tromsø UiT, the Department of Health and Care Sciences, UiT, the Department of Community Medicine (UiT) and the Department of Clinical Medicine (UiT). Epidemiological data (register data) collected by SSHF in the period 2014-2015 is analyzed.

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8030.00140. Spiseforstyrrelser og fornøydhet med egen kropp i Helse- og levekårsundersøkelsen SAMINOR 2 i områder med samisk og norsk besetting.
Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: KIRSTI KVALØY.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summary: Eating disorders are related to a disturbed body image and eating- and/or dieting related behavior. Factors influencing this condition is probably both culturally and socially related and also different in a western or non-western culture. Little research is performed on non-western cultures and what is viewed as an attractive appearance may vary in a cultural context. The proposed study is based on data from SAMINOR 2 clinical part (age: 40-79 years, n=6004) and the main aim is to study eating disorder and body and weight satisfaction amongst the Sami and non-Sami population co-inhabiting the same northern areas. The project will employ epidemiological methods in a cross-sectional design to study: 1) Eating disorders correlated with weight, dieting and weight satisfaction and 2) Correlation between the ideal body image with the participants’ body image, weight and weight satisfaction. The influence of physical activity, mental health, socioeconomic status and ethnicity will be investigated.

Publikasjoner/Publications:

Kvaløy K, Melhus M, Silviken A, Brustad M, Sørlie T, Broderstad AR. Disordered eating in Sami and non-Sami Norwegian populations: the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey. Public Health Nutr 2017, 1-12. Published online 10 Dec 2017.

Kvaløy K, Melhus M, Silviken A, Broderstad AR. Weight underestimation linked to anxiety and depression in a cross-sectional study of overweight individuals in a Sami and non-Sami Norwegian population: the SAMINOR Study. BMJ Open 2019;9:e031810. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031810.

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8030.00156. Physical activity in Sami and non-Sami populations in Northern Norway. The SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey.
Prosjektleder/Principal investigator/Project summary: KRISTIN BENJAMINSEN BORCH.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summary: Eating disorders are related to a disturbed body image and eating- and/or dieting related behavior. Factors influencing this condition is probably both culturally and socially related and also different in a western or non-western culture. Little research is performed on non-western cultures and what is viewed as an attractive appearance may vary in a cultural context. The proposed study is based on data from SAMINOR 2 clinical part (age: 40-79 years, n=6004) and the main aim is to study eating disorder and body and weight satisfaction amongst the Sami and non-Sami population co-inhabiting the same northern areas. The project will employ epidemiological methods in a cross-sectional design to study: 1) Eating disorders correlated with weight, dieting and weight satisfaction and 2) Correlation between the ideal body image with the participants’ body image, weight and weight satisfaction. The influence of physical activity, mental health, socioeconomic status and ethnicity will be investigated.

Project changes: Principal investigator changed from Bent-Martin Eliassen to Kristin Benjaminsen Borch.

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8030.00167. Metabolic syndrome in a multi-ethnic population in Northern Norway – The SAMINOR Study.

Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: ANN RAGNHILD BRODERSTAD.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summary: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is recognized as a reliable long-term predictor of adverse health outcomes. Information on the prevalence of chronic disease in various ethnic groups of Northern Norway is sparse. The Population-based Study on Health and Living conditions in Regions with Sami and Norwegian populations – The SAMINORStudy performed among the rural multi-ethnic population in Northern Norway was designed in an effort to address the lack of health information about the indigenous people in Norway – the Sami. The study consists of two cross-sectional surveys, SAMINOR 1 and SAMINOR 2, both conducted within an epidemiological methodological framework. The SAMINOR Study includes several public health related themes with an interdisciplinary approach, covering research questions on lifestyle and risk factors related to diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM) and MetS. The present project on MetS will fit in with the strategies of Helse Nord´s research, as it will bring new knowledge regarding non-communicable disease among the Sami and non-Sami population living in Northern Norway. In the proposed project, based on data from the SAMINOR Study, we will study the prevalence and time trends of MetS, the relation of anthropometric measures and level of MetS components, and to what degree MetS predicts mortality in the population of Northern Norway.

Publikasjoner/Publications:

Michalsen VL, Kvaløy K, Svartberg J, Siri SRA, Melhus M, Broderstad AR. Change in prevalence and severity of metabolic syndrome in the Sami and non-Sami population in rural Northern Norway using a repeated cross-sectional population-based study design: the SAMINOR Study. 

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8030.00186. Internatskoleerfaringer og resiliens sett i sammenheng med utdanning, selvrapporterte overgrep, diskriminering, mobbing, velvære og helse – en SAMINOR studie.

Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: TORE SØRLIE.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summary: Internatskoler var det viktigste virkemidlet i fornorskningen av samene og de finske innvandrerne i Norge som ble iverksatt med stor tyngde i 1850 årene. På 1900-tallet bodde rundt 1/3 av skolebarna i Finnmark på skoleinternat fra de var fra 7 til 14 år gamle. I tillegg til adskillelse fra hjemmemiljøet og undervisning på norsk, måtte elevene underordne seg norske rollemodeller, holdninger og leveregler. Tidligere internatskoleelever har rapportert hyppig emosjonell, fysisk eller seksuell vold under internatskoleopphold. Det er vist at mobbing på skolen og dårlig opplevd skoleklima er forbundet med nedsatte skoleprestasjoner, lavere utdanningsnivå og dårligere helse. Det foreligger imidlertid ikke studier som på gruppenivå kan utsi noe om forskjeller mellom dem med og uten internatskoleerfaringer fra Norge. Vi vil også studere betydningen av personlige, familie og nettverksrelaterte resiliens faktorer. Internatskoleerfaringer ble best kartlagt i SAMINOR 1 med tre spørsmål om tidspunkt og varighet av internatskoleopphold. I SAMINOR 2 var det kun ett ja/nei spørsmål om internatskoleopphold. I SAMINOR1 bekreftet 2613 personer erfaring med internatskole. Tilsvarende antall i SAMINOR 2 var 1442. Av de 4671 som deltok i både SAMINOR 1 og 2, svarte 583 ja på spørsmålene om internatskole. Selvrapportert vold og overgrep, posttraumatiske stressreaksjoner og resiliensfaktorer ble kun rapportert i SAMINOR 2. For å utnytte de mer utfyllende internatskole dataene fra SAMINOR 1 sett i relasjon til data om vold, overgrep, posttraumatiske stressreaksjoner, livskvalitet og resiliens fra SAMINOR 2, må data fra disse to studiene kobles.

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8030.00215. Selvmordsatferd blant samer og nordmenn i Nord-Norge – Forekomst, assosierte risiko- og beskyttende faktorer.

Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: ANNE SILVIKEN.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summarySuicide rates in the Arctic region are in general high, and the highest rates are found among some indigenous populations, and the rates are especially high among young indigenous males aged 15-24 years old. A significant moderate increased risk for suicide was found among Sami in Northern Norway in the time period 1970-1998 (estimated suicide rate 19 per 100 000 p.y.) (Silviken, Haldorsen & Kvernmo, 2006). On the other hand, another study from the North Norwegian Youth Study found no ethnic differences in prevalence of suicide attempts between Sami adolescents and their non-Sami peers in Arctic Norway (Silviken & Kvernmo, 2007).  In the SLiCA Study, reported suicidal thoughts was compared between Swedish Sami, Norwegian Sami, Greenlandic and Alaskan Inuit. The prevalence was lowest among Swedish Sami, followed by Norwegian Sami  (Broderstad, Eliassen & Melhus, 2011). The prevalence of suicide ideation, attempts and self-harm, have never before been explored in the Sami and Norwegian populations in Northern Norway in a systematic way. This study is based on the second survey of the Population-based Study on Health and Living Conditions in regions with Sami and Norwegian populations – the SAMINOR 2 Questionnaire Survey.

The aims of the study are to explore:

Suicidal behavior and associated risk- and protective factors among the adult population in Northern Norway. Factors that will be examined for association to suicidal behavior includes resilience factors (personal strength and family cohesion – The Resilience Scale for Adults (Friborg et al. (2005)), interpersonal violence (physical, psychological and sexual violence), discrimination, and experience of boarding schools. Analysis will focus on differences in patterns of associated factors due to gender, age, ethnicity and geographical area.

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8030.00216. Inflammasjon knyttet til depresjon og fedme i områder med samisk og norsk bosetting – SAMINOR studien.

Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: KIRSTI KVALØY.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summaryInflammation is a result of the body’s reaction to physical and psychosocial stress that has also been associated to obesity. As well as low-grade inflammation is linked to obesity, it may also induce symptoms of depression and behaviours that can result in weight gain. This means that inflammation may both be cause and a result of depression and obesity. The levels of C-reactive protein and ferritin reflects the inflammation status and thereby useful as measuring indicators. Because both mental health and obesity seem to be different in the Sami compared to non-Sami populations, the aim of this project is to study the relationship between inflammation, depression and obesity with and without metabolic disease in Sami and non-Sami living in the same geographic areas. We will use the population-based surveys SAMINOR 1 (2003-04) and SAMINOR 2 clinical part (2012-14) to study this in both a cross-sectional and longitudinal study design and our hypotheses are that there are sex- and ethnic differences concerning these relationships.

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8110.00004. Rein som næringsmiddel II.
Prosjektleder/Principal investigator: AMMAR ELTAYEB ALI HASSAN.

Prosjektsammendrag/Project summary: Background: Levels of environmental pollutants in traditional food have been given special focus due to consumers' concern. The main aim of the project is to study level of environmental pollutants (persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals) in human blood and reindeer meat and products, and to investigate possible health effects to consumers. This is important in concern to provide answers to consumers in order to remove the uncertainty around reindeer meat and products. The preliminary results show low level of POPs in reindeer. The documentation is important concerning marketing of reindeer as food substance. Aim: the main aim of the study is to provide good and solid documentation concerning levels of POPs in meat and products from reindeer used as food and levels of nutrients and POPs in blood of high consumers of reindeer meat and products. Methods: data from reindeer samples was collected from different grazing districts in northern and mid Norway. These samples will be analyzed for POPs. Data from SAMINOR study is based on questionnaire and blood samples from populations living in areas with Sami and ethnic Norwegians. The SAMINOR study will be used to map reindeer and products consumption in areas with both Sami and ethnic Norwegians. Blood samples from high consumers of reindeer meat and products will be analyzed for environmental pollutants (POPs and heavy metals) and nutrients (minerals, fatty acids and vitamins B12 and E).

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Avsluttede prosjekter (Completed projects)