The paper discusses the cooperation between the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) and the Directorate of Fisheries in Norway in responding to a request from the Ministry of Fisheries for improved management measures for fisheries in the Arctic.
Due to climate driven loss of sea ice, new areas have become accessible to fishing vessels, and it is important to ensure that valuable biodiversity is not negatively affected by bottom fishing gear such as trawls. The IMR has conducted annual ecosystem surveys in the Barents Sea since 2004, and for more than a decade those surveys have also included sampling of benthic biota, resulting in a unique information base on vulnerable habitats. The Fisheries Directorate has created map-based tools for identifying these areas.
“A key finding here is that cost-efficient, large-scale mapping and monitoring of seabed ecosystems is important for the development of area-based regulations of fishing activities.” (Jørgensen, Bakke and Hoel, 2020)
Following up on a 2011 regulation that introduced a preliminary ban on fishing with bottom gear in deep waters (below 1000 meters), the amended regulation for Norway´s northernmost seas in areas around Svalbard also applies in shallower waters. However, no fishers have applied for permission to fish in the 10 years since the first regulation was adopted, so the “preliminary” ban seems to be rather permanent. More than 440.000 km2 is now subject to preliminary protection, and more than 3000 km2 is permanently protected.
In a wider perspective, the measures discussed here constitutes “other effective area-based measures” (OECMs) that are one of the mechanisms that can be used to meet the Aichi targets of conservation of 10% of the oceans by 2020.
MARA has recently been involved in the project “The GATOR method”. The project has developed resources to support student learning in qualitative and quantitative methods (including GIS), and is a collaboration between the Department of Social Sciences and the Norwegian College of Fishery Science at UiT.
Aarskog, K.N. (2021) Bruker koronadata for å gjøre statistikk spennende. Available from: https://uit.no/nyheter/artikkel?p_document_id=714226 (Hentet: 2021-01-13)
Haugseth, T.M. (2020) Jonas Stein fikk ærespris for formidling. Available from: https://en.uit.no/nyheter/artikkel?p_document_id=712407
Solvang, Ø.; Eriksen, K.E.; Stein, J.; Brattland, C. (2020) "Covid-19 Country Level Social Science Dataset". V2. Available from:https://doi.org/10.18710/VMUP44.
Solvang, Ø.; Stein, J.; Brattland, C. (2020), "Covid-19 Municipal Level (Norway) Social Science Dataset". V2. Available from: https://doi.org/10.18710/NMKI2B.
The Stein Rokkan Research Lab for Quantitative Social and Political Science (06.10.20) “Gators metode” – en ressurs for å støtte studenters læring om kvantitativ metode. Available from: https://site.uit.no/rokkangruppen/2020/10/06/nye-ressurser-for-studenter-som-vil-laere-seg-kvantitativ-metode/
The Stein Rokkan Research Group for Quantitative Social and Political Science. Available from: https://dataverse.no/dataverse/rokkan
UiT Norges arktiske universitet (n.d.) Gators metode. Podcast-spilleliste. Available from: https://soundcloud.com/uitpodcast/sets/gators-metode
Drilling waste was not a matter of concern in the early years of petroleum activity on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Waste matter such as drill cuttings, drilling mud and produced water was discharged to sea without any form of regulation. This changed immensely from the late 1970s to the early 2000s. The article provides a detailed historical overview of how offshore waste became an increasingly complex governance object, through four phases of government-industry collaboration.
“The leading role of the industry presupposes high levels of expertise on environmental effects, but also requires that the controlling government agencies possess similar knowledge to audit the companies.”
The paper shows that the involvement of the industry has been vital in establishing more environmentally friendly practices. The increasingly leading role of the industry toward the fourth phase presupposes high levels of expertise on environmental effects, but it also requires that the controlling government agencies possess similar knowledge to audit the companies. Here, the authors argue, lies a weakness of the system: government agencies have fewer resources to maintain the level of expertise compared to capital-intensive industry partners.
“The paper is relevant for academics, industry and policy actors working in this field.”
The paper shares relevant reflections about strengths and weaknesses of active industry involvement in environmental governance and is relevant for academics, industry and policy actors working in this field.
MARA supervises a number of master students every year. Here is a presentation of this year’s graduates.
Ida Marie Jensen: Conflict management in the coastal zone - a study of conflicts of interests in the coastal zone in Karlsøy municipality
Ida has studied the planning process and conflicts of interest in the coastal zone in Karlsøy municipality. The aim of the thesis is to gain insight into the background of the conflict, how differing (different?) interests are balanced in the planning process, and how coastal zone planning secures legitimacy. The main findings are that overlapping use of areas causes conflict, and balance and legitimacy depend on the actors’ perceptions of the planning process.
Supervisor: Bjørn-Petter Finstad
Joshua Nyarko Boampong: An Assessment of Land use/landcover and Shoreline Changes in the Coastal zone of Greater Accra region, Ghana
Supervisor: Keshav Prasad Paudel and Kari Elida Eriksen
Kolbrún María Elfarsdóttir: The Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) conflict in the Northeast Atlantic
Kolbrún‘s thesis studies the Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) conflict in the Northeast Atlantic with focus on the Icelandic perspective. She focuses on international negotiations and negotiations within the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC), what criteria of quota allocation is discussed and how they are valued. Kolbrún’s main findings are that the criteria of allocation discussed are the same in the international negotiations and within NEAFC, and according to the legal framework in UNCLOS and UNFSA. Her study also shows that Iceland has strong influential interest groups that seem to put constraints on the international negotiations.
Supervisor: Alf Håkon Hoel
Rósa Olsen: Recruitment of fishers in The Faroe Islands. A study of recruitment systems and mechanisms in the Faroese fishing fleet
Supervisors: Signe A. Sønvisen and Jahn Petter Johnsen
Runar Hansen: What affects large coastal vessels’ choice of landing port? A study of relations and affiliation to local communities
Runar has studies what factors may affect where large coastal vessels land their catch. His research shows that there is no single factor (like the price of one species of fish) that determines where vessels choose to land. It depends on fish abundancy, when the season is, and the vessel’s total quotas in different fisheries. Hence, the choice about where to land is a trade-off between several factors. Furthermore, relations between buyer and seller, as well as ties to the local community, plays an important role.
Supervisor: Jahn Petter Johnsen
Sofie Krogh Rasmussen: Recruitment to fisheries in Lebesby Municipality. How has the regulatory system affected employment in fisheries in a local community in Lebesby?
Supervisor: Jahn Petter Johnsen
Trude Elisabeth Martinsen Knutsen: In the same boat - an study of the organizational process in The Norwegian Fishermen’s Association
Trude’s thesis is a study of the latest organizational process in The Norwegian Fishermen’s Association. The aim is to gain understanding of the process and why it did not result in organizational changes. The main discovery is that the structure of the organization prevents change and development. Trude also uncovers a number of other supporting causes for how the process ended without success, as well as experiences the organization might make use of in the future.
Supervisor: Bjørn-Petter Finstad
Vetle L. Ommundsen: Mapping and spatial analysis of change in fishing behaviour in the Barents sea 2011-2018
Vetle uses Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and hotspot analysis to map spatial and temporal variations in fishing behaviour for trawl and longline fishing vessels in the Barents Sea in the period from 2011 to 2018. The study is based on VMS and logbook data from Norwegian fishing vessels. In his results, Vetle finds huge variations in the fishing behaviours of the two gear groups and fish species, depending on season and year. He also finds that the mobility of the fishing fleet is connected to seabed and topography.
Supervisor: Keshav Prasad Paudel
Andrea Asplund: A visitor that has come to stay? The case of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in Norway
Supervisor: Alf Håkon Hoel
Supervisor: Signe Annie Sønvisen
Joakim Berntsen: Markedsadgang for atlantisk laks fra Chile til USA
Supervisor: Alf Håkon Hoel
Kristoffer Andreassen: EUs markedsadgang for fisk og sjømat til Japan og Sør-Korea
Supervisor: Alf Håkon Hoel
Congratulations to all our candidates, and we wish you the best in the future!
The PRISMAS project, led by Maaike Knol-Kauffman, recently started up. Here, Maaike writes about the aim and scope of the project:
It is in the polar areas that marine systems are most drastically affected by climate change. As a consequence of climate change, new and remote areas are becoming accessible to us, leading to increased maritime traffic, and a stretching and surpassing of limits in terms of maritime operational seasons and areas, as well as in entrepreneurial initiatives. This raises strong concerns about Search and Rescue and emergency response capacities. The increase in maritime activity also puts pressure on the improvement of Arctic weather and sea ice forecasting services.
In PRISMAS, a team of social and natural scientists from the University of Tromsø, the University Centre in Svalbard and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute will study the dynamics of maritime activities around Svalbard with the aim to deliver policy-relevant knowledge to provide guidance for mitigating risk and enhancing safe navigation.
We will do so by:
Providing a comprehensive understanding of past and projected change
Developing a holistic overview of safety and preparedness capacities in Svalbard waters, and analyze the extent to which these are efficiently supported by forecasting infrastructures; and
Assessing risks related to navigating in Svalbard waters through performing predictability studies on hazardous ice and temperature conditions.
Professor Petter Holm has won the 2020 UiT Education Award for his long engagement with educational quality at UiT. Petter has worked with education at The Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, the Result centre at UiT, and at The Norwegian College of Fishery Science (NFCS). Petter led the SIMFISH project, which has been an important part of integrating game-based learning at NFCS.
Mara staff is involved in projects around the world. Professor Jahn Petter Johnsen has recently visited Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN) where he and associate professor Signe Sønvisen are involved in a project about recruitment and retention in the fisheries sector.
This is a part of the Ocean Frontier Institute (OFI) where The Norwegian College of Fishery Science is a partner. In addition to the work with the project Johnsen also gave a talk on Norwegian aquaculture to researchers at MUN/OFI.
Johnsen with some of his audience. From left Dr. Barbara Neis (MUN) Dr.Edgar McGuinness (NTNU), Dr. Jahn Petter Johnsen (UiT), Mina Bjerke Kleiv (UiT, exchange student at MUN) and Dr. Joel Finnis (MUN).
On the 27th-28th of January, MARA had visitors from Indonesia in relation to the project Sustainable Marine Aquaculture Development in Indonesia (SMADI).
Indonesia is the second largest aquaculture producer in the world (after China). The country has a several thousand years of experience with freshwater and brackish water aquaculture, and long experience with multi-trophic aquaculture. The SMADI project aims to contribute to increase production of marine fish through establishment of sustainable marine aquaculture production and industry.
From the 27th to 31st of January, a delegation from the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMFA) in Indonesia visited Norway. The visit included a visit to NCFS where Jahn Petter, Bjørn and Signe introduced the Norwegian coastal zone planning and management; as well as the possibilities and challenges in Norwegian aquaculture. In Tromsø, they also met with the County Council, the Directorate of Fisheries and SINTEF.
We thank the delegation for their visit, and look forward to further cooperation!
The delegation consisted of: Erna Yuniarsih (MMFA), Adi Geraldi (MMFA), Lazuardi F. Nizar (MMFA), Akhmad Suuri (MMFA), Rahima (Norwegian Embassy, Jakarta).
Bjørn Hersoug, Erna Yuniarsih, Adi Geraldi, Lazuardi F. Nizar, Akhmad Suuri and Rahima. Photo: Signe Annie Sønvisen
The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, animals feeding on plastic, illegal fisheries and coral bleaching are some of the topics that have dominated the discourse about the world oceans in the past few years. Research institutions, organisations and states are working on solutions, and next year marks the beginning of the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. Considering all this, what will the ocean agenda look like in 2020?
Professor Alf Håkon Hoel brings us along on a journey from the United Nations to Norway, and from law to sustainability in this week’s featured opinion piece from The Fram Centre.
MARAs Peter Arbo recently contributed to the Norwegian anthology "Geografi, kunnskap, vitenskap: Den regionale UH-sektorens framvekst og betydning" (2019), with the book chapter "Universitet og region - en sammensatt relasjon".
Universities are currently facing more complex challenges and expectations than before. In Norway there are now universities throughout the country, and in this chapter Arbo explores the relation between university and region in Norway. What advantages and disadvantages do regions face when hosting a university? How is the region important for the university? What transformations are happening in this relation? The chapter sheds light on a topic that is particularly relevant today, with the conflict surrounding Nord university and its closing of the Nesna and Sandnessjøen campuses.
New research: Valuable Weather and Sea-Ice Services for the Marine Arctic Require New Forms of Cooperation
Researchers from the University of Umeå, UiT The Arctic University of Norway and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute have published and article in the journal Polar Geography.
The article explores how the Norwegian Meteorological Institute need to develop weather and sea-ice services through dialogue with maritime users, to provide the services Norway's maritime sector needs.
The MARE conference is one of MARA's big highlights throughout the year. This year, ten of our members participated at the conference. MARA's members contributed with 11 presentations, led three sessions and our professor emeritus Svein Jentoft held the keynote speech.