The FENDURA research project

The Female Endurance Athlete (FENDURA): Exploring the missing link in exercise physiology.

FENDURA (The Female Endurance Athlete) is a research project led by the School of Sport Sciences at UiT The Arctic University of Norway, in close collaboration with NTNU, Olympiatoppen, Norges Skiforbund and Norges Skiskytterforbund. The projects aims at improving the sparse knowledge of how hormonal and other female-specific aspects impact exercise and performance among female endurance athletes. The FENDURA project is focused on researching female athletes, to better understand female-specific challenges, and to improve the performance and health of these athletes.

Project Structure


Recent Publications


  1. Engseth TP, Andersson EP, Solli GS, Morseth B, Thomassen TO, Noordhof DA, Sandbakk Ø and Welde B (2022).Prevalence and Self-Perceived Experiences With the Use of Hormonal Contraceptives Among Competitive Female Cross-Country Skiers and Biathletes in Norway: The FENDURA Project. Front. Sports Act. Living 4:873222. doi: 10.3389/fspor.2022.873222

  2. Majumder, T., De Martin Topranin, V., Sandbakk, Ø., & Noordhof, D. A. (2022). Indian Endurance Athletes' Menstrual Cycle: Practices, Knowledge, Communication, Health, and Changes in Perceptions Across the Phases. International journal of sports physiology and performance17(12), 1706–1715. 10.1123/ijspp.2022-0131

  3. von Rosen, P., Ekenros, L., Solli, G. S., Sandbakk, Ø., Holmberg, H. C., Hirschberg, A. L., & Fridén, C. (2022). Offered Support and Knowledge about the Menstrual Cycle in the Athletic Community: A Cross-Sectional Study of 1086 Female Athletes. International journal of environmental research and public health19(19), 11932.

  4. Haugen, T., Sandbakk, Ø., Seiler, S., & Tønnessen, E. (2022). The Training Characteristics of World-Class Distance Runners: An Integration of Scientific Literature and Results-Proven Practice. Sports medicine - open8(1), 46. https://doi-org/10.1186/s40798-022-00438-7

  5. Almquist, N. W., Sandbakk, Ø., & Solli, G. S. (2022). Performance-Related Physiological and Haematological Changes During Pregnancy and Postpartum in a Well-Trained Cyclist Performing Endurance Training. Frontiers in physiology13, 762950. https://doi-org.10.3389/fphys.2022.762950

  6. Noordhof, D. A., Janse de Jonge, X. A. K., Hackney, A. C., de Koning, J. J., & Sandbakk, Ø. (2022). Sport-Science Research on Female Athletes: Dealing With the Paradox of Concurrent Increases in Quantity and Quality. International journal of sports physiology and performance17(7), 993–994. https://doi-org.10.1123/ijspp.2022-0185

  7. Bucher Sandbakk S, Tønnessen E, Haugen T, Sandbakk Ø. Training and coaching of female vs. male endurance athletes on their road to gold. Perceptions among successful elite athlete coaches. Dtsch Z Sportmed. 2022; 73: 251-258. doi:10.5960/dzsm.2022.549


  1. Solli GS, Sandbakk SB, Noordhof DA, Ihalainen JK, Sandbakk Ø. Changes in Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Performance, and Side Effects Across the Phases of the Menstrual Cycle Among Competitive Endurance Athletes.Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2020 Sep 21:1-10. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2019-0616. Epub ahead of print. 

  2. Solli GS, Sandbakk Ø. Training Characteristics During Pregnancy and Postpartum in the World's Most Successful Cross Country Skier. Front Physiol. 2018 May 23;9:595. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00595. 

Recent Conference Presentations and Posters

*Note: only first author displayed.



FENDURA Master and Bachelor Theses

Master Students

Bachelor Students



Collaborations and Partnerships

Lead Institution and Funders


Collaborative Tertiary Institutions


Collaborative Medical Institutions

Sporting Organisations


Please contact the Project Leader, Dr. John Owen Osborne, for more information on upcoming FENDURA studies and/or research dissemination.

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