Exercise physiology and performance

Our researchers have extensive background and competence in exercise physiology, and a large part of our research is therefore centered around this topic, including training adaptation, exercise performance, athletic pacing, with a specific focus on cross-country skiing and football.


  1. Andersen TB, Krustrup P, Bendiksen M, Orntoft CO, Randers MB, Pettersen SA: Kicking Velocity and Effect on Match Performance When using a Smaller, Lighter Ball in Women's Football. Int J Sports Med 2016, 37(12):966-972.
  2. Andersson EP, Bachl P, Schmuttermair A, Staunton CA, Stoggl TL: Anaerobic work capacity in cycling: the effect of computational method. European journal of applied physiology 2022, 122(12):2637-2650.
  3. Andersson EP, Bjorklund G, McGawley K: Anaerobic Capacity in Running: The Effect of Computational Method. Front Physiol 2021, 12:708172.
  4. Andersson EP, Hamberg I, Do Nascimento Salvador PC, McGawley K: Physiological responses and cycle characteristics during double-poling versus diagonal-stride roller-skiing in junior cross-country skiers. European journal of applied physiology 2021, 121(8):2229-2241.
  5. Andersson EP, Logdal N, Byrne D, Jones TW: Physiological responses and performance factors for double-poling and diagonal-stride treadmill roller-skiing time-trial exercise. European journal of applied physiology 2023, 123(11):2495-2509.
  6. Andersson EP, Noordhof D, De Koning J, Stöggl TL, Björklund G: Editorial: Anaerobic Energy/Work Supply in Endurance Activities—The Importance and Effect of Computational Method. In.; 2021.
  7. Ardigo LP, Stoggl TL, Thomassen TO, Winther AK, Sagelv EH, Pedersen S, Hammer TM, Heitmann KA, Olsen OE, Welde B: Ski Skating Race Technique-Effect of Long Distance Cross-Country Ski Racing on Choice of Skating Technique in Moderate Uphill Terrain. Front Sports Act Living 2020, 2:89.
  8. Baptista I, Johansen D, Figueiredo P, Rebelo A, Pettersen SA: A comparison of match-physical demands between different tactical systems: 1-4-5-1 vs 1-3-5-2. PLoS One 2019, 14(4):e0214952.
  9. Baptista I, Johansen D, Figueiredo P, Rebelo A, Pettersen SA: Positional Differences in Peak- and Accumulated- Training Load Relative to Match Load in Elite Football. Sports (Basel) 2019, 8(1).
  10. Baptista I, Johansen D, Seabra A, Pettersen SA: Position specific player load during match-play in a professional football club. PLoS One 2018, 13(5):e0198115.
  11. Borg DN, Osborne JO, Tweedy SM, Liljedahl JB, Nooijen CFJ: Bicycling and Tricycling Road Race Performance in International Para-Cycling Events Between 2011 and 2019. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2022, 101(4):384-388.
  12. Calogiuri G, Evensen KH, Weydahl A, Andersson K, Patil GG, Ihlebæk C, Raanaas RK: Green exercise as a workplace intervention to reduce job stress. Results from a pilot study. Work : A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation 2016, 53(1):99-111.
  13. Calogiuri G, Mikkilä SP, Weydahl A: Can promotion of outdoor activities impact people’s vitamin D levels? Promising finding from a pilot study. Proceedings in Electronic International Interdisciplinary Conference 2013, 2:276-280.
  14. Calogiuri G, Nordtug H, Weydahl A: The potential of using exercise in nature as an intervention to enhance exercise behavior: results from a pilot study. Perceptual and Motor Skills 2015, 121(2):350-370.
  15. Calogiuri G, Rossi A, Formenti D, Weydahl A: Sleep recovery in participants after racing in the Finnmarkslop - Europe’s longest dog‑sled race. J Sport Med Phys Fit 2017, 57(1-2):103-110.
  16. Calogiuri G, Weydahl A: Effects of Sleep Loss on the Rest-Activity Circadian Rhythm of Helpers Participating in Continuous Dogsled Races. Biological Research for Nursing 2013, 16(2):123-133.
  17. Calogiuri G, Weydahl A: Health challenges in long-distance dog sled racing: A systematic review of literature. International journal of circumpolar health 2017, 76(1).
  18. Calogiuri G, Weydahl A, Carandente F: Methodological Issues for Studying the Rest-Activity Cycle and Sleep Disturbances: A Chronobiological Approach Using Actigraphy Data. Biological Research for Nursing 2013, 15(1):5-12.
  19. Casolo A, Sagelv EH, Bianco M, Casolo F, Galvani C: Effects of a structured recess intervention on physical activity levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, and anthropometric characteristics in primary school children. Journal of Physical Education and Sport 2019, 2019(5):1796-1805.
  20. Dalen T, Overas O, van den Tillaar R, Welde B, von Heimburg ED: Influence of different soccer-specific maximal actions on physiological, perceptual and accelerometer measurement loads. Open Access J Sports Med 2018, 9:107-114.
  21. Danielsen KH, Vårnes TK, Mathisen G, Heitmann KA, Morseth B: Physical Activity, Physical Fitness And Body Mass Index Among Elementary School Children In The Arctic Area. In., vol. 52: American College of Sports Medicine; 2020: 62-62.
  22. Dobler F, Bachl P, Stoggl T, Andersson EP: Physiological Responses and Performance During a 3-Minute Cycle Time Trial: Standard Paced Versus All-Out Paced. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2022, 17(11):1583-1589.
  23. Formenti D, Rossi A, Calogiuri G, Thomassen TO, Scurati R, Weydahl A: Exercise Intensity and Pacing Strategy of Cross-country Skiers during a 10 km Skating Simulated Race. Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal 2015, 23(2):126-139.
  24. Gejl KD, Hvid LG, Andersson EP, Jensen R, Holmberg HC, Ortenblad N: Contractile Properties of MHC I and II Fibers From Highly Trained Arm and Leg Muscles of Cross-Country Skiers. Front Physiol 2021, 12:682943.
  25. GjOvaag T, Berge H, Olsrud M, Welde B: Acute Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses in Middle-Aged Persons with Elevated Blood Pressure/Stage 1 Hypertension following Moderate and High-Intensity Isoenergetic Endurance Exercise. Int J Exerc Sci 2020, 13(3):1532-1548.
  26. Hammer T: Relative age effect in international ski jumping: analysis of FIS World Cup and FIS Junior World Ski Championships. Journal of Physical Education and Sport 2020, 2020(03):1455-1460.
  27. Hammer TM, Pedersen S, Pettersen SA, Rognmo K, Sagelv EH: Affective Valence and Enjoyment in High- and Moderate-High Intensity Interval Exercise. The Tromso Exercise Enjoyment Study. Front Psychol 2022, 13:825738.
  28. Heitmann KA, Dalen H, Holmen Gundersen G, Ingvaldsen RP, Welde B: Intra‐arterial blood pressure traits during and after heavy resistance exercise in healthy males. Translational Sports Medicine 2019, 2(6):325-333.
  29. Hoog S, Andersson EP: Sex and Age-Group Differences in Strength, Jump, Speed, Flexibility, and Endurance Performances of Swedish Elite Gymnasts Competing in TeamGym. Front Sports Act Living 2021, 3:653503.
  30. Jonsson M, Welde B, Stoggl TL: Biomechanical differences in double poling between sexes and level of performance during a classical cross-country skiing competition. J Sports Sci 2019, 37(14):1582-1590.
  31. Krustrup P, Williams CA, Mohr M, Hansen PR, Helge EW, Elbe A-M, De Sousa M, Dvorak J, Junge A, Hammami A et al: The “Football is Medicine” platform – scientific evidence, large-scale implementation of evidence-based concepts and future perspectives. In., vol. 28; 2018: 3-7.
  32. Lidar J, Andersson EP, Sundstrom D: Validity and Reliability of Hydraulic-Analogy Bioenergetic Models in Sprint Roller Skiing. Front Physiol 2021, 12:726414.
  33. Linkas J, Ahmed LA, Csifcsak G, Emaus N, Furberg AS, Grimnes G, Pettersen G, Rognmo K, Christoffersen T: Are pro-inflammatory markers associated with psychological distress in a cross-sectional study of healthy adolescents 15-17 years of age? The Fit Futures study. BMC Psychol 2022, 10(1):65.
  34. Linkas J, Ahmed LA, Csifcsak G, Emaus N, Furberg AS, Grimnes G, Pettersen G, Rognmo K, Christoffersen T: C-Reactive Protein and TGF-alpha Predict Psychological Distress at Two Years of Follow-Up in Healthy Adolescent Boys: The Fit Futures Study. Front Psychol 2022, 13:823420.
  35. Linkas J, Ahmed LA, Csifcsak G, Emaus N, Furberg AS, Pettersen G, Rognmo K, Christoffersen T: Two-year changes in sleep duration are associated with changes in psychological distress in adolescent girls and boys: the fit futures study. Health Psychol Behav Med 2022, 10(1):1159-1175.
  36. Lögdal N, Laaksonen MS, Andersson EP: Individual fluctuations in blood lactate concentration during an ice hockey game; differences between player positions. International Journal of Exercise Science 2022, 15(6):985-993.
  37. Mathisen G, Jensen RM, Pettersen SA: Aerobic Games and Playful Exercises in 9-Year-Old Boys: Intensity and Fitness Effects. Revija za Elementarno Izobraževanje 2016, 9(1-2):57-64.
  38. Mathisen G, Pettersen SA: Anthropometric factors related to sprint and agility performance in young male soccer players. Open Access J Sports Med 2015, 6:337-342.
  39. Mathisen G, Pettersen SA: Effect of high-intensity training on speed and agility performance in 10-year-old soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2015, 55(1-2):25-29.
  40. Mathisen G, Pettersen SA: The effect of speed training on sprint and agility performance in female youth soccer players. Journal of Physical Education and Sport 2015, 2015(03):395-399.
  41. Mathisen GE, Pettersen SA: The Effect of Speed Training on Sprint and Agility Performance in 15-Year-Old Female Soccer Players. LASE Journal of Sport Science 2015, 6(1):61-70.
  42. Medbo JI, Welde B: Effect of Computational Method on Accumulated O(2) Deficit. Front Sports Act Living 2022, 4:772049.
  43. Moen F, Pettersen SA, Gjertsas K, Vatn M, Ravenhorst M, Kvalsvoll A, Liland KH, Mosleth EF: The effect of bio-electro-magnetic-energy-regulation therapy on sleep duration and sleep quality among elite players in Norwegian women's football. Front Psychol 2023, 14:1230281.
  44. Osborne JO, Minett GM, Stewart IB, Trost S, Drovandi C, Costello JT, Pavey TG, Borg DN: Evidence that heat acclimation training may alter sleep and incidental activity. Eur J Sport Sci 2023, 23(8):1731-1740.
  45. Osborne JO, Solli GS, Engseth TP, Welde B, Morseth B, Noordhof DA, Sandbakk O, Andersson EP: Annual Volume and Distribution of Physical Training in Norwegian Female Cross-Country Skiers and Biathletes: A Comparison Between Sports, Competition Levels, and Age Categories-The FENDURA Project. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2023:1-9.
  46. Osborne JO, Stewart IB, Borg DN, Beagley KW, Buhmann RL, Minett GM: Short-term heat acclimation preserves knee extensor torque but does not improve 20 km self-paced cycling performance in the heat. European journal of applied physiology 2021, 121(10):2761-2772.
  47. Osborne JO, Tallent J, Girard O, Marshall PW, Kidgell D, Buhmann R: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation during maximal voluntary contraction: a Delphi survey with expert consensus. European journal of applied physiology 2023, 123(10):2203-2212.
  48. Otsuka K, Cornelissen G, Weydahl A, Gubin D, Beaty LA, Murase M: Rules of Heliogeomagnetics Diversely Coordinating Biological Rhythms and Promoting Human Health. Applied Sciences 2023, 13(2).
  49. Pedersen A, Randers MB, Luteberget LS, Moller M: Validity of Session Rating of Perceived Exertion for Measuring Training Load in Youth Team Handball Players. J Strength Cond Res 2023, 37(1):174-180.
  50. Pedersen S, Heitmann KA, Sagelv EH, Johansen D, Pettersen SA: Improved maximal strength is not associated with improvements in sprint time or jump height in high-level female football players: a clusterrendomized controlled trial. BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2019, 11(20):20.
  51. Pedersen S, Johansen D, Casolo A, Randers MB, Sagelv EH, Welde B, Winther AK, Pettersen SA: Maximal Strength, Sprint, and Jump Performance in High-Level Female Football Players Are Maintained With a Customized Training Program During the COVID-19 Lockdown. Front Physiol 2021, 12:623885.
  52. Pedersen S, Welde B, Sagelv EH, Heitmann KA, M BR, Johansen D, Pettersen SA: Associations between maximal strength, sprint, and jump height and match physical performance in high-level female football players. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2022, 32 Suppl 1:54-61.
  53. Pettersen SA, Brenn T: Activity Profiles by Position in Youth Elite Soccer Players in Official Matches. Sports Med Int Open 2019, 3(1):E19-E24.
  54. Pettersen SA, Johansen HD, Baptista IAM, Halvorsen P, Johansen D: Quantified Soccer Using Positional Data: A Case Study. Front Physiol 2018, 9:866.
  55. Pettersen SD, Aslaksen PM, Pettersen SA: Pain Processing in Elite and High-Level Athletes Compared to Non-athletes. Front Psychol 2020, 11:1908.
  56. Riiser A, Andersen V, Castagna C, Pettersen SA, Saeterbakken A, Froyd C, Ylvisaker E, Naess Kjosnes T, Fusche Moe V: The Construct Validity of the CODA and Repeated Sprint Ability Tests in Football Referees. Int J Sports Med 2018, 39(8):619-624.
  57. Riiser A, Pettersen SA, Andersen V, Saeterbakken AH, Froyd C, Ylvisåker E, Moe VF: Accelerations and high intensity running in field and assistant football referees during match play. Science and Medicine in Football 2017, 1(3):280-287.
  58. Rossi A, Calogiuri G, Formenti D, Vitale JA, Weydahl A: The chronotype can influence the perceived exertion during self-paced exercise performed at different times of day. In.; 2013: 55-56.
  59. Rossi A, Formenti D, Vitale JA, Calogiuri G, Weydahl A: The effect of chronotype on psychophysiological responses during aerobic self-paced exercises. Perceptual and Motor Skills 2015, 121(3):840-855.
  60. Sagelv EH, Engseth TP, Pedersen S, Pettersen SA, Mathisen G, Heitmann KA, Welde B, Thomassen TO, Stoggl TL: Physiological Comparisons of Elite Male Visma Ski Classics and National Level Cross-Country Skiers During Uphill Treadmill Roller Skiing. Front Physiol 2018, 9(1523):1523.
  61. Sagelv EH, Hammer T, Hamsund T, Rognmo K, Pettersen SA, Pedersen S: High Intensity Long Interval Sets Provides Similar Enjoyment as Continuous Moderate Intensity Exercise. The Tromso Exercise Enjoyment Study. Front Psychol 2019, 10(JULY):1788.
  62. Sagelv EH, Pedersen S, Nilsen LPR, Casolo A, Welde B, Randers MB, Pettersen SA: Flywheel squats versus free weight high load squats for improving high velocity movements in football. A randomized controlled trial. BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2020, 12:61.
  63. Sagelv EH, Selnaes I, Pedersen S, Pettersen SA, Randers MB, Welde B: Effects of Linear Versus Changes of Direction Repeated Sprints on Intermittent High Intensity Running Performance in High-level Junior Football Players over an Entire Season: A Randomized Trial. Sports (Basel) 2019, 7(8):14.
  64. Skauge M, Rafoss K: Gendered Exercise as an Expression of Gendered Meaning? Exercise Contexts and Motives Among Norwegian Youths 13–18 Years Old, 2010–2018 | A Summary. In.: Idrottsvetenskap, Lärarutbildningen, Malmö högskol; 2021.
  65. Staunton CA, Andersson EP, Skovereng K, Bjorklund G: Heart Rate Does Not Accurately Predict Metabolic Intensity During Variable-Intensity Roller Skiing or Cycling. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2022, 17(12):1664-1671.
  66. Stoggl T, Welde B, Supej M, Zoppirolli C, Rolland CG, Holmberg HC, Pellegrini B: Impact of Incline, Sex and Level of Performance on Kinematics During a Distance Race in Classical Cross-Country Skiing. J Sports Sci Med 2018, 17(1):124-133.
  67. Stoggl TL, Hertlein M, Brunauer R, Welde B, Andersson EP, Swaren M: Pacing, Exercise Intensity, and Technique by Performance Level in Long-Distance Cross-Country Skiing. Front Physiol 2020, 11:17.
  68. Stokke A, Weydahl A, Calogiuri G: Barn og fysisk aktivitet i barnehagen: Hvordan kan aktivitetsnivået dokumenteres? Nordisk Barnehageforskning 2014, 8(3):1-18.
  69. Torvik PO, Heimburg EDV, Sende T, Welde B: The effect of pole length on physiological and perceptual responses during G3 roller ski skating on uphill terrain. PLoS One 2019, 14(2):e0211550.
  70. Tutt AS, Persson H, Andersson EP, Ainegren M, Stenfors N, Hanstock HG: A heat and moisture-exchanging mask impairs self-paced maximal running performance in a sub-zero environment. European journal of applied physiology 2021, 121(7):1979-1992.
  71. Valstad SA, von Heimburg E, Welde B, van den Tillaar R: Comparison of Long and Short High-Intensity Interval Exercise Bouts on Running Performance, Physiological and Perceptual Responses. Sports Med Int Open 2018, 2(1):E20-E27.
  72. Vandbakk K, Welde B, Kruken AH, Baumgart J, Ettema G, Karlsen T, Sandbakk O: Effects of upper-body sprint-interval training on strength and endurance capacities in female cross-country skiers. PLoS One 2017, 12(2):e0172706.
  73. Vitale JA, Bjørkesett E, Campana A, Panizza G, Weydahl A: Chronotype and response to training during the polar night: a pilot study. International journal of circumpolar health 2017, 76(1).
  74. Vitale JA, Calogiuri G, Weydahl A: Influence of chronotype on responses to a standardized, self-paced walking task in the morning vs afternoon: A pilot study. Perceptual and Motor Skills 2013, 116(3):1020-1028.
  75. Vitale JA, Lombardi G, Weydahl A, Banfi G: Biological rhythms, chronodisruption and chrono-enhancement: The role of physical activity as synchronizer in correcting steroids circadian rhythm in metabolic dysfunctions and cancer. Chronobiol Int 2018, 35(9):1185-1197.
  76. Vitale JA, Roveda E, Montaruli A, Letizia G, Weydahl A, Caumo A, Carandente F: Chronotype influences activity circadian rhythm and sleep: Difference in sleep quality between weekdays and weekend. Chronobiology International 2015, 32(3):405-415.
  77. Vitale JA, Weydahl A: Chronotype, Physical Activity, and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review. Sports Medicine 2017:1-10.
  78. Welde B, Morseth B, Handegard BH, Lagestad P: Effect of Sex, Body Mass Index and Physical Activity Level on Peak Oxygen Uptake Among 14-19 Years Old Adolescents. Front Sports Act Living 2020, 2(78):78.
  79. Welde B, Stoggl TL, Mathisen GE, Supej M, Zoppirolli C, Winther AK, Pellegrini B, Holmberg HC: The pacing strategy and technique of male cross-country skiers with different levels of performance during a 15-km classical race. PLoS One 2017, 12(11):e0187111.
  80. Weydahl A, Calogiuri G: Hydration in female drivers in a 1044 km dog sled race in Finnmark. In., vol. 25; 2014: 82-88.


Svein Arne Pettersen (Principal investigator)
John Owen Osborne
Tina Pettersen Engseth
Madison Taylor
Hanne Cesilie Staff
Sigurd Pedersen
Andreas Kjæreng Winther
Kim Arne Heitmann
Karianne Hagerupsen
Øyvind Bucher Sandbakk
Karin Helene Danielsen