Disputas Anja M. Pesch til ph.d.-graden
"Å skape rom for flerspråklighet. En studie av diskursive vilkår for barnehagens språklige praksis med flerspråklige barn"
This study explores how kindergarten teachers use language with multilingual children in kindergarten, how they understand multilingualism and how they cooperate with the children’s parents. I have carried out fieldwork in two kindergartens, one in Norway and one in Germany. Fieldwork lasted for approximately half a year in each kindergarten, and document analysis, observation, photos and interviews were used as methods for data collection. I observed how kindergarten teachers used language with multilingual children, what they emphasized and focused on. The interviews were used to discuss the kindergarten teachers’ ideas and beliefs about multilingualism and language in general. Moreover, we talked about specific situations I had observed. Cooperation with parents of multilingual children was also a topic. I took photos of visual expressions of multilingualism in the kindergartens and carried out an analysis of the most important policy documents for kindergartens in both countries. The analysis focused specifically on how multilingualism is understood in the documents and which guidance they give for work with multilingual children in kindergarten. I also carried out interviews with parents of multilingual children about their choice and use of language at home as well as about their cooperation with the kindergarten teachers.
The kindergartens’ different location and national guidelines made it possible to compare the teachers’ beliefs on multilingualism and emphasis in their work with multilingual children, which made implicit understandings clearer. Both kindergartens viewed multilingualism as a resource, but this resource perspective had different limits, which among other things were related to the national guidelines. The study also shows how the teachers’ beliefs on multilingualism were connected to how they legitimized and valued both their own and children’s choice and use of language. Regarding cooperation with parents, the data material points towards contrasts in teachers’ and parents’ understanding of multilingualism and how they influence their views on each other’s use and choice of language. Especially in the Norwegian kindergarten, the findings show a field of tension between acknowledging multilingualism and including the children’s different mother tongues in kindergarten on the one hand and a strong obligation towards developing their skills in Norwegian on the other hand. This relates to the emphasis and focus in the national guidelines in Norway.
The findings contribute to both the kindergarten sector and Early Childhood Teacher Education. The resource perspective on multilingualism has been criticized for being a normative and moral term, leaving it to the single kindergarten or kindergarten teacher to decide what it actually means. This study emphasizes the importance of discussing and questioning beliefs on multilingualism by showing their impact on work with multilingual children in kindergarten. Moreover, it raises the question how kindergartens meet parents with multilingual children, how teachers and parents view each other’s knowledge and whose beliefs may have the greatest authority. These are important issues to discuss for teachers working in kindergarten and for teachers working in Early Childhood Teacher education, preparing students for work in kindergartens with a growing linguistic diversity.
Avhandlingen finnes på Munin.
Prøveforelesning starter på samme sted og dag kl 10:15.
Veiledere: professor Hilde Sollied og dosent Jorun Høier, UiT Norges arktiske universitet, professor II Elin Eriksen Ødegaard, UiT Norges arktiske universitet/Høgskulen på Vestlandet
Førsteopponent professor Ph.d Åsa Palviainen, University of Jyväskylä.
Andreopponent universitetslektor Ph.d Anne Kultti, Göteborgs Universitet
Professor Ph.d. Bengt-Ove Andreassen, ILP, UiT Norges arktiske universitet, leder av komiteen.
Disputasen ledes av instituttleder Odd Arne Thunberg