Arctic chronobiology and physiology


The research group studies physiological adaptations to life at high latitudes in arctic/subarctic fish, birds and mammals, and their tolerance to climatic and other changes to their environment.

Our research is curiosity-driven and aims to understand the physiological mechanisms that enable fish, birds and mammals to cope with the large seasonal variations in climatic conditions, such as light-dark cycles (photoperiod) and food availability/quality. Seasonal strategies such as fattening, coat changes, migration and hibernation are active areas of research for the group. We are also researching the physiological adaptations to lack of oxygen as seen in diving mammals and hibernators.

Our methodology spans from state-of-the-art molecular techniques to whole-animal integrative research. We have excellent research animal facilities for fish, wild birds and mammals, well-equipped specialized laboratories, and good opportunities for field research at our Svalbard field station and more locally around Tromsø.


The research group is located in the Arctic Biology facility at the UiT campus, which includes offices, laboratories, animal rooms, workshops, store rooms and garages within 4 separate buildings totalling about 2 700 m2. The buildings are located within a fenced area of >50 000 m2 which also includes pens for holding experimental animals. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority has approved the research animal facility for the maintenance of arctic mammals and birds (reindeer, seals, ptarmigan) and hibernation facilities for golden hamsters. The group also operates a field station on Ryøy, ~20 km outside Tromsø, and in Adventdalen on the high-arctic archipelago of Svalbard. 

Recently we modernised our ptarmigan facility, surgery suite and molecular biology laboratories. We also have access the Marine Research Laboratory in Kårvika for our fish work and R/V Helmer Hanssen for our seal research.

Our Projects

Arctic Seasonal Timekeeping Initiative

MSc & PhD projects

Completed PhDs 2021-2022

Evolution of seasonal adaptations in voles - a physiological and genetic approach 

Circadian-based processes in the High Arctic: activity, thermoregulation and photoperiodism in the Svalbard ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea)

Photoperiodic history-dependent preadaptation of the smolting gill. Novel players and SW immediate response as markers of growth and welfare 

Completed MSc 2020-2023

Diel activity rhythms in wild songbirds in the Subarctic

Role of the lactate receptor HCAR1 as part of neural adaptations to hypoxia in hooded seals (Cystophora cristata)

Human responses to year-round lighting using Google Trends to investigate seasonality in activity patterns and libido

Thermal properties of arctic fox fur and the effects of fur lice infestation

Seasonal regulation of melanogenesis in ptarmigan

The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus of The Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and it’s Circadian Outputs

Characterization of Cuzd1 expression and development of in vivo CRISPR technology in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

The effect of endurance training on mitochondrial function in Siberian huskies and Alaskan huskies

Circannual rhythms in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

Circadian disruption by light and its effect on the immune function of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Can baleen whales be safely live-captured for studies of their physiology?

The structure of nasal conchae in Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea) with comparisons to three other Galliform birds

Are Hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) endowed with mechanisms for non-shivering thermogenesis within the skeletal muscle?

Dive behaviour and respiration rates of humpback whales (Megaptera Novaeangliae) during foraging off Northern Norway, with implications for metabolic rate estimates

Nitrogen Excretion and Aspects of Water Balance in Fasting Hooded Seal Pups (Cystophora cristata)

Validating the Tritiated Water Method in Adult Harp Seal

The metabolism of lean and fat hooded seal pups (Cystophora cristata): how fat contributes to the total metabolic rate

Changes in fat metabolism in the seasonal body mass cycle of captive Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea)

Characterization of the biological clock in Svalbard ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea)

Characterization of the circadian clock in Hooded Seals (Cystophora Cristata) and its interaction with mitochondrial metabolism A multi-tissue comparison and cell culture approach

Dietary vs. light stimulated smoltification: effects on smolt development and appetite regulation in pre- and post- smolts

Hibernation in European Hamsters (Cricetus crisetus): An assessment of brain permeability during torpor-arousal cycling

Munin has a full list of PhD and MScs completed.

Available MSc projects

If you want to join us for a masters project you can either register for the Arctic animal physiology masters program at UiT or if you are already on a MSc program at a different university you can register as an exchange student for the masters project: Exchange Masters project or the Erasmus+ Traineeship.

You may also be able to start the project sooner than the application deadline listed under exchange student masters project, please contact us directly to find out.

Please note that for many of the projects involving animals the supervisors will need at least 6 months notice to set up the project before you are due to start with the work, so please contact us early.

Infection biology

Setaria tundra – a climate sensitive parasite in reindeer


Mosquitoborne parasites like Setaria tundrae, Rumenfilaria andersoni and Onchocerca tarsicola have been reported previously in reindeer in Fennoscandia. However, the prevalence of filaroid parasites has not recently been studied in Norwegian reindeer. Infections attributable to a species of the genus Setaria appears to have emerged in Scandinavian reindeer in 1973 when there was outbreak of peritonitis. This outbreak also included Norwegian reindeer. Severe peritonitis and large numbers of Setaria sp. worms were found. There have also been large outbreaks since associated with warm summers in Finland. Reindeer with heavy infections of S. tundra express decreased thriftiness, poor body condition, and an undeveloped winter coat. Post mortem findings include ascites, fibrin deposits, adhesions, and the presence of S. tundra nematodes. Mosquitoes play an important role in the transmission of S. tundra and the rate of development in mosquitoes is highly temperature-dependent. S. tundra is a climate sensitive infection and we may therefore see an increase in the prevalence of such cases in reindeer as the Arctic temperature continues to rise.

Aim and objectives

The main aim is to investigate samples from three reindeer herds sampled during 2022, 2023 and 2024 for evidence of S. tundra-infection. The three herds are located in on a south – north gradient in Trøndelag, Nordland and Finnmark and they are part of the work performed in the NFR-project WELFED. If the student is interested, she/he may participate in the field during Q1/Q2 2024.

The main aim will be achieved through the following objectives;

  1. Blood samples will be examined for the presence of Setaria microfilaria by the modified Knott’s technique.
  2. Blood samples will be investigated for S. tundra antigen with molecular methods and compared with the Knott’s technique.
  3. Regional slaughterhouse survey, to match the three herds investigated, regarding the occurrence of peritonitis and liver lesions in reindeer.
  4. Results are analysed with special emphasis on climatic data.

Internal supervisors:

Ingebjørg H. Nymo

Monica Sundset

External supervisors: Rebecca Davidson, The Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Kayla Buhler, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences.

Eimeria spp. in Svalbard rock ptarmigan


Various subspecies of rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) are found across the Northern Hemisphere. The Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea) is the world northernmost land bird and the only herbivorous bird native to Svalbard.

Seven species of Eimeria have been described in four different rock ptarmigan subspecies. Two species of Eimeria, that presently is in the process of being described, are found in the Svalbard rock ptarmigan population (unpublished results), but little is known about the species in Svalbard. We also know little about the impact that these parasites might have on host population dynamics in Svalbard, however, it is known that endoparasites may contribute to population cycles in ptarmigan and grouse.

Svalbard rock ptarmigan are bred and kept for research purposes in captivity at UiT The Arctic University of Norway. Wild rock ptarmigans from Svalbard are brought in to the facility on a regular basis. Despite quarantine and disinfection measures, Eimeria spp. infection remains a recurring problem in Svalbard rock ptarmigan chicks held in captivity at UiT.

We hence need more information about Eimeria spp. in Svalbard rock ptarmigan both in the wild and in captivity at UiT to understand the effect of this parasite on the population dynamics in the wild, and to handle the recurring problem at UiT.

Project aim and objectives

The main aim of this project is to characterize and compare Eimeria spp. from rock ptarmigan at UiT and at Svalbard, this goal will be achieved through the following objectives;

  1. Morphological and qualitative evaluation of Eimeria spp. in rock ptarmigan faecal samples from Svalbard. The sample gathering will be in cooperation with Eva Fuglei, The Norwegian Polar Institute (Q2 2024). The student will need to apply for an Arctic Field Grant to cover their travel and subsistence costs for the fieldwork (application deadline 15th November 2023, 13:00). This will be done in collaboration with the project supervisors.
  2. Morphological and qualitative evaluation of Eimeria spp. in faecal samples from chicks hatched and reared in captivity at UiT (Q2 and Q3 2024). Obs. This will require laboratory work throughout the summer 2024.
  3. Comparison of sporulation dynamics of Eimeria oocysts from rock ptarmigan at Svalbard and in captivity at UiT (Q2 and Q3 2024). Obs. This will require laboratory work throughout the summer 2024.
  4. Molecular characterization of Eimeria oocysts from rock ptarmigan at Svalbard and in captivity UiT (Q4 2024 and Q1 2025). Supervisors will apply for external funding for this objective.

Internal supervisors

Ingebjørg H. Nymo ( and Monica Sundset (  

External supervisors

Rebecca Davidson (The Norwegian Veterinary Institute) and Eva Fuglei (The Norwegian Polar Institute)


Thyroid hormone regulation of mitochondrial activity in hibernation 

Ever wonder how a hibernator re-warms itself? This project focuses on an endocrine tissue called brown fat which produces heat through uncoupled mitochrondria to re-warm the whole animal. In order to prepare for the hibernation season thyroid hormone levels in the brain are altered, this project will look at the effect of changing thyroid hormone levels in the brown adipose tissue on thermogenesis. The student will: 

Contact David Hazlerigg or Shona Wood ( or ) 

Behavioural analysis of hibernating and non-hibernating strategies 

Golden hamsters prepare for winter by lowering their body temperature to approximately 33C, some take this a step further initiating full hibernation by periodically lowering their body temperature to 8C! This project will compare the two winter strategies calculating activity, food intake and energy expenditure over the winter season. The student will: 

Contact Shona Wood ( ) 

Do ptarmigan use torpor (“hibernation”)? 

Svalbard ptarmigan have remarkable adaptations to survive the arctic winter, increasing fat stores and plumage to maintain body temperature. Torpor is a state metabolic rate suppression which leads to a regulated lowering of body temperature, multiple species of bird use torpor to save energy. The aim of this project is to determine whether the Svalbard ptarmigan employs this strategy. The student will: 

Contact Shona Wood ( ) 

Fish physiology

Testing the endogenous basis of semi-lunar rhythms in Rainbow Trout growth and behaviour 

Several labs have now isolated the molecular underpinning of lunar clocks in invertebrates, however, despite many descriptive reports, whether the lunar phase entrains timing mechanisms in vertebrates remains a mystery. Building on classical studies in rainbow trout, we will test entrainment of semi-lunar growth patterns in a lab setting and determine if they are a passive consequence of lunar light in the environment, or driven by an internal timer. This project requires a motivated student who will: 

Recommended reading: 

Kaiser T and Neumann J (2021) Circalunar clocks—Old experiments for a new era. Bioessays. 2021;43:2100074. doi: 10.1002/bies.202100074 

Supplementary methods from - Audira G et al., (2019) Establishing simple image-based methods and a cost-effective instrument for toxicity assessment on circadian rhythm dysregulation in fish. Biology Open. 8, bio041871. doi:10.1242/bio.041871 

 Contact Alex West ( ) 

Smoltification in salmon and/or immune function in salmon

Contact David Hazlerigg ( to discuss further.

Chronobiology - seasonal & circadian

Overwintering strategies and activity rhythms in a living fossil 

The living fossil lepidurus arcticus is found in ephemeral pools and permanent freshwater lakes on Svalbard. There are two potential avenues of research: 

  1. A characterisation of the daily (circadian) activity and gene rhythms in Lepidurus arcticus
  2. The effect of light and temperature on the timing of hatching of overwintering Lepidurus arcticus 

At present, we don't know if L. arcticus responds to photoperiod, if it has a biological clock and if it has a rhythmic expression of the clock genes. Knowledge of life cycle can be useful for understand the biological rhythms in this and other high arctic species. Moreover, climate change studies predict a special effect in high-latitude lakes (Giorgi et al., 1997), which includes longer ice-free periods. Changes in the length of the ice-free period may have differential effects on the development of species, altering the zooplankton community structure.  

The student will:  

Contact David Hazlerigg or Shona Wood ( or ) 

Calcium appetite in reindeer 

Every year reindeers grow a new set of antlers, a process requiring a vast amount of calcium. But how do reindeers get all this calcium? An intriguing hypothesis is that during times of intensive antler growth, changes in sensory perception mean that reindeers find the taste of calcium more pleasant and get better at detecting calcium in foods that they eat. This project will test these ideas by examining behavioural responses to calcium in reindeers at different periods of the antler cycle. The student will: 

 Contact David Hazlerigg or Jaime McCutcheon ( or ) 

Clocks and chronotypes of wild Arctic songbirds

(students interested in joining the breeding season fieldwork should contact Barbara as soon as possible)

We have opportunities to study circadian clocks, daily rhythms and chronotypes of wild free-living songbirds (great tits, blue tits, willow tits or pied flycatchers). Students may develop their own research projects and are welcome to contact Barbara to discuss their ideas. Depending on the season, topics can range from: a) basic characterization of rhythms of individually marked birds in the field (especially during the polar night and midnight sun); b) studying how activity patterns relate to reproductive success and survival; c) impacts of artificial light at night on daily/seasonal rhythms; d) studying the circadian clock of songbirds during the polar night and midnight sun; e) other studies involving behavioural tests (personality, cognition) may also be possible depending on the season.

 Activities can involve:

Contact Barbara Tomotani ( )

Evolution of biological clocks in land snails

We are establishing a new animal species to be a model for studying selection of biological clocks in nature: the copse snail. We have the opportunity to study biological clocks, daily rhythms and winter dormancy both in laboratory and in the field. Being a new model species, there are plenty of possibilities for students to develop their own research projects. Students are welcome to get in touch with Barbara to discuss their ideas.

Depending on the season, topics can range from: a) basic characterization of rhythms; b) experimentation with winter dormancy; c) circadian clock during the “midnight sun”; d) big data approach to determine winter dormancy in land snails; e) other studies involving behavioural tests (e.g., personality), heritability of traits, and ecological biogeography may also be possible.

 Activities can involve: 

Contact Barbara Tomotani ( )


Is adaptive fat metabolism important for Svalbard Ptarmigan hydration during freezing Arctic winters? 

Svalbard ptarmigan undergo a huge seasonal change in body mass. Regulation of body mass in Svalbard Ptarmigan is dependent on seasonal photoperiod, but also temperature – cold exposed ptarmigan lose mass through the winter, whereas ptarmigan kept above freezing temperatures maintain a high body mass until spring. As both groups of ptarmigan are well within their thermoneutral zone this difference in body mass is not simply the consequence of higher energy expenditure under a larger thermal gradient. Instead, we hypothesise that body mass decline in cold exposed birds reflects a changing metabolic program that minimizes energy required to absorb liquid water. Rather than eat snow, which must then be melted and warmed to body temperature – a costly process, cold-exposed birds adopt an energetically more favourable strategy that liberates metabolic water from stored fat. To test this hypothesis we will characterize the metabolic program and water turnover in Svalbard ptarmigan exposed to cold and non-freezing temperatures. To achieve this the student will: 

Recommended reading: 

Stokkan K. et al (1995) Photoperiodic and ambient temperature control of the annual body mass cycle in Svalbard ptarmigan. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. doi: 10.1007/BF00387306 

Riek A et al., (2021) Daily energy expenditure and water turnover in two breeds of laying hens kept in floor housing. Animal. Vol15(1), 100047. doi: 10.1016/j.animal.2020.100047 

Contact Alex West ( ) 



The research group offers research-based teaching in general and comparative physiology, both at the Bachelor, Master and PhD levels.

Courses and teaching activities:

  • BIO-1105 - Innføring I biologi (Bachelor)
  • BIO-1008 - Evolusjon (Bachelor)
  • BIO-2002 - Dyrefysiologi (Bachelor)
  • BIO-3030 - Extreme Animal Physiology (Master)
  • BIO-3014 - Biological timekeeping (Master)
  • BIO-8017 - Biological timekeeping (PhD)
  • Animal Experimentation for Researchers 




Popular science articles of our research

Podcast on Hibernation

News article on hibernation

Local news article on hibernation (in Norwegian)

Svalbard reindeer cover image in JEB

Feature on our work on Hooded seals in JEB

Early career researcher spotlight on Chiara Ciconne working Hooded seals

Feature on our work on Sibernian hamsters and maternal light

Endurance physiology in Huskys (in Norwegian)

European research council funded hibernation project (in Norwegian)

Peer-reviewed articles


  1. Melum VJ, de Miera CS, Markussen FAF, Simonneaux V, Hazlerigg DG, Wood SH (2024) Hypothalamic tanycytes as mediators of maternally programmed seasonal plasticity. Current Biol 34: 1-9
  2. Furrer M, Meier SA, Maxime J, Franken P, Sundset MA, Brown SA, Wagner GC, Huber R (2024) Reindeer in the Arctic reduce sleep need during rumination. Current Biol 34: 1-7
  3. Mørk T, Eira HI, Rødven R, Nymo IH, Blomstrand BM, Guttormsen S, Olsen L, Davidson RK (2024) Necropsy findings, meat control pathology and causes of loss in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in northern Norway. Acta Vet Scand 66: 1-14
  4. Chen J, Wu W, Liu X, Hazlerigg D, Zhan X (2024) The circannual clock: Empowering seasonal anticipation in organisms. Science Bullentin XX:xxx
  5. Blix AS (2024) Biografi over Konsul Lars Christensen (1884-1965). Årbok 2023 fra Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskab. ISSN 2704-1859
  6. Meier SA, Furrer M, Nowak N, Zenobi R, Sundset MA, Huber R, Brown SA, Wagner G (2024) Uncoupling of behavioral and metabolic 24-h rhythms in reindeer. Curr Biol 34:1-8
  7. Tyler NJC, Post E, Hazlerigg DG (2024) Weak coupling between energetic status and the timing of reproduction in an Arctic ungulate. Sci Rep 14: 6352
  8. Ciccone C, Kante F, Folkow LP, Hazlerigg DG, West AC, Wood SH (2024) Circadian coupling of mitochondria in a deep-diving mammal. J Exp Biol (2024) 227 (7): jeb246990.
  9. Tennyson AJD, Salvador RB, Tomotani BM, Marx FG (2024) A new diving Pliocene Ardenna shearwater (Aves: Procellariidae) from New Zealand. Taxonomy 4: 237–249.
  10. Blix AS (2024) Ishavet ga, men ishavet tok. Nordlys To. 4. april, s. 30.



  1. Cheon HL, Kjelstrup S, Kizilova N, Flekkøy EG, Mason MJ, Folkow LP (2024) Structure-function relationships in the nasal cavity of Arctic and subtropical seals. Biophys J 122: 4686-4698
  2. Hazlerigg DG, Appenroth D, Tomotani BM, West AC, Wood SH (2023) Biological timekeeping in polar environments: lessons from terrestrial vertebrates. J Exp Biol 226, jeb246308
  3. Tonkopeeva M, Skum ER, Krarup-Hansen K, Sundset MA, Romanenko T, Griffiths D, Moe L, Mathiesen SD (2023) Resilience thinking in reindeer husbandry. Ch. 8 in ‘Reindeer Husbandry – Resilience in the changing Arctic’ (eds: Mathiesen SD, Eira IMG, Turi EI, Oskal A, Pogodaev M, Tonkopweeva M), Springer Polar Sciences, pp. 189-214
  4. Duarte V, Gaetano P, Striberny A, Hazlerigg D, Jørgensen EH, Fuentes J, Campinho MA (2023) Modulation of intestinal growth and differentiation by photoperiod and dietary treatment during smoltification in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) Aquaculture 566: 739164
  5. Nord A, Holje V, Judik B, Folkow LP, Pap PL (2023) Seasonal changes in plumage density, plumage mass and feather morphology in the world’s northernmost land bird, the Svalbard Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea). Polar Biol
  6. Martens GA, Geßner C, Folkow LP, Creydt M, Fischer M, Burmester T (2023) The roles of brain lipids and polsr metabolites in the hypoxia tolerance of deepdiving pinnipeds. J Exp Biol 226: jeb245355
  7. Blix AS (2023) Eventyret Norsk Moskus A/S [eng. Norsk Moskus (Norwegian Muskox) A/S - a project like no other]. Rangifer Report 15: 1-20
  8. Blix AS (2023) Han gav navn til Blixgate. Borreminner, X: 37-52
  9. Tomotani BM, Timpen F, Spoelstra K (2023) Ingrained city rhythms: flexible activity timing but more persistent circadian pace in urban birds. Proc R Soc B 290: 20222605
  10. Lindner M, Ramakers JJC, Verhagen I, Tomotani BM, Mateman AC, Gienapp P, Visser ME (2023) Genotypes selected for early and late avian lay date differ in their phenotype, but not fitness, in the wild. Science Advances 9 (23): eade6350
  11. Lamsal A, Tryland M, Paulsen KM, Romano JS, Nymo IH, Stiasny K, Soleng A, Vikse R, Andreassen ÅK (2023) Serological screening for tick-borne encephalitis virus in eight Norwegian erds of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Zoonoses Public Health 70:692–698
  12. van Dalum MJ, van Rosmalen L, Appenroth D, Fernando Cazarez Marquez, Renzo Roodenrijis, Lauren De Wit, Roelof Hut, David Hazlerigg, Ambient Temperature Effects on the Spring and Autumn Somatic Growth Trajectory Show Plasticity in the Photoneuroendocrine Response Pathway in the Tundra Vole. Journal of Biological Rhythms. 2023;0(0). doi:10.1177/07487304231190156
  13. Tomotani Barbara M.Timpen Fabian and Spoelstra Kamiel, 2023 Ingrained city rhythms: flexible activity timing but more persistent circadian pace in urban birds Proc. R. Soc. B.2902022260520222605
  14. Lean FZX, Cox R, Madslien K, Spiro S, Nymo IH, Bröjer C, Neimanis A, Lawson B, Holmes P, Man C, Folkow LP, Gough J, Ackroyd S, Evans L, Wrigglesworth E, Grimholt U, McElhinney L, Brookes SM, Delahay RJ, Núñez. Tissue distribution of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in wild animals with a focus on artiodactyls, mustelids and phocids. One Health 16: 100492
  15. Davidson RK, Fæste CK, Uhlig S, Tukun F-L, Lian H, Solvang HA, Thorvaldsen R, Folkow LP, Romano JS, Kilvær MV, Holmgren KE, Nymo IH (2023) Pharmakcokinetics of a long-acting subcutaneous eprinomectin injection in semi-domesticated reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) – a pilot study. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 97: 104041
  16. Nymo IH, Siebert U, Baechlein C, Postel A, Breines EM, Lydersen C, Kovacs KM, Tryland M (2023) Pathogens exposure in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Svalbard, Norway. Pathogens12:58.
  17. Flekkøy EG, Folkow LP, Kjelstrup S, Mason MJ, Wilhelmsen Ø (2023) Thermal modeling of the respiratory turbinates in arctic and subtropical seals. J Therm Biol 112: 103402
  18. Tryland M, Romano JS, Nymo IH, Mørk T, Þórarinsdóttir R, Breines EM, Li H, Cunha CW, Thórisson SG (2023) A screening for virus infections among wild Eurasian tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Iceland, 2017-2019. Viruses, 15: 317
  19. Gaetano P, Duarte V, Striberny A, Hazlerigg D, Jørgensen EH, Campinho MA, Fuentes J (2023) Photoperiod and dietary treatment in freshwater modulate the short-term intestinal response to seawater in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture 568: 739316 


  1. Blix AS, Folkow LP, Mercer JB (2022) The history of thermal physiology in Norway. Ch. 12 in: Blatteis CM, Taylor NAS, Mitchell D (eds) Thermal History – A Worldwide History, Perspectives in Physiology. The American Physiological Society, Springer, New York, pp.569-596,
  2. Dell KJ, Blix AS (2022) The Norwegian philosopher Peter Wessel Zapffe (1899-1990) and the book of Job. Trans R Norw Soc Sci Lett 2022(1), 5-25
  3. Geβner C, Krüger A, Folkow LP, Fehrle W, Mikkelsen B, Burmester T (2022) Transcriptomes suggest that pinniped and cetacean brains have a high capacity for aerobic metabolism while reducing energy-intensive processes such as synaptic transmission. Front Mol Neurosci 15: Article 877349
  4. Hamilton CD, Lydersen C, Aars J, Acquarone M, Atwood T, Baylis A, Biuw M, Boltunov AN, Born EW, Boveng P, Brown TM, Cameron M, Citta J, Crawford J, Dietz R, Elias J, Ferguson SH, Fisk A, Folkow LP, Frost KJ, Glazov DM, Granquist SM, Gryba R, Harwood L, Haug T, Heide-Jørgenssen MP, Hussey NE, Kalinek J, Laidre KL, Liovka DI, London JM, Loseto LL, MacPhee S, Marcoux M, Matthews CJD, Nilssen K, Nordøy ES, O’Corry-Crowe G, Øien N, Olsen MT, Quakenbush L, Rosing-Asvid A, Semenova V, Shelden KE, Shpak OV, Stenson G, Storrie L, Sveegaard S, Teilmann J, Ugarte F, Von Duyke AL, Watt C, Wiig Ø, Wilson, RR, Yurkowski DJ, Kovacs KM (2022) Marine mammal hotspots across the circumpolar Arctic. Diversity and Distribution 00:1-25
  5. Hansen KK, Turi I, Sundset MA, Mathiesen SD (2022) Bridging traditional and scientific knowledge on reindeer meat smoking – a pilot study. Int J Circumpol. Health 81: 2073056
  6. Sundset MA, Sandvoll R (2022) Academic development through a collective approach – introducing peer observation of teaching in a multidisciplinary faculty. Nordic Journal of STEM Education, 6(1): 16-27
  7. Grecian WJ, Stenson GB, Biuw M, Boehme L, Folkow LP, Goulet PJ, Jonsen ID, Malde A, Nordøy ES, Rosing-Asvid A, Smout S (2022) Environmental drivers of population-level variation in the migratory and diving ontogeny of an Arctic top predator. R. Soc. Open Sci. 9: 211042




  1. Gundappa MK, To T-H, Grønvold L, Martin SAM, Lien S, Geist J, Hazlerigg D, Sandve SR, Macqueen DJ (2021) Genome-wide reconstruction of rediploidization following autopolyploidization across one hundred million years of salmonid evolution. Mol Biol Evol
  2. Blix AS (2021) Biografi over Theodor Christian Brun Frølich (29. September 1870 – 14. August 1947). Årbok 2020 fra Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskab, 65-70
  3. Eerkes-Medrano D, Aldridge D, Blix AS (2021) North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) feeding habits and migrations evaluated by stable isotope analysis of baleen. Ecology and Evolution 11(22):16344-16353
  4. Marmol-Guijarro AC, Folkow LP, Codd JR (2021) The influence of snow properties on speed and gait in the Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea). Integrative Organismal Biology 3(1):obab021.doi: 10.1093/iob/obab021. eCollection 2021.
  5. Wege M, Bornemann H, Blix AS, Nordøy ES, Biddle L, Bester MN (2021) Distribution and habitat suitability of Ross seals in warming ocean. Front Mar Sci 8:659430
  6. Marmol-Guijarro A, Nudds R, Folkow LP, Lees J, Codd JR (2021) Does posture explain the kinematic differences in a grounded running gait between male and female Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea) moving on snow? Polar Biol
  7. Ebling FJP, Fletcher J, Hazlerigg DG (2021) Gerald Lincoln: A man for all seasons. J Endocrinol 00:e12968,
  8. van Rosmalen L, van Dalum J, Appenroth D, Roodenrijs RTM, de Wit L, Hazlerigg DG, Hut RA (2021) Mechanisms of temperature modulation in mammalian seasonal timing. The FASEB Journal, 35:e21605
  9. Appenroth D, Wagner GC, Hazlerigg DG, West AC (2021) Evidence for circadian-based photoperiodic timekeeping in Svalbard ptarmigan, the northernmost resident bird. Current Biol 31:1-8
  10. West AC, Mizoro Y, Wood SH, Ince LM, Iversen M, Jørgensen EH, Nome T, Sandve SR, Martin SAM, Loudon ASI, Hazlerigg DG (2021) Immunologic profiling of the Atlantic salmon gill by single nuclei transcriptomics. Frontiers in Immunology 12:669889
  11. Appenroth D, Nord A, Hazlerigg DG, Wagner GC (2021) Body temperature and activity rhythms under different photoperiods in high Arctic Svalbard ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea). Front Physiol 12:633866
  12. Pinzone M, Nordøy ES, Eppe G, Malherbe C, Das K, Collard F (2021) First record of plastic debris in the stomach of a hooded seal pup from the Greenland Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 167:112350
  13. Ushida K, Kock R, Sundset MA (2021) Special issue: wildlife microbiology. Microorganisms 9, 1968.
  14. Poto MP, Elvevoll EO, Sundset MA, Eilertsen K-E, Morel M, Jensen I-J (2021) Suggestions for a systematic regulatory approach to ocean plastics. Foods, 10, 2197.
  15. Iversen M, Mulugeta T, West AC, Jørgensen EH, Martin SAM, Sandve SR, Hazlerigg D (2021) Photoperiod-dependent developmental reprogramming of the transcriptional response to seawater entry in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). G3 journal 11:jkab072
  16. Markussen FAF, Melum VJ, Bothorel B, Hazlerigg DG, Simmoneaux V, Wood S (2021) A refined method to monitor arousal from hibernation in the European hamster. BMC Veterinary Research (2021) 17:14
  17. Striberny A, Lauritzen DE, Fuentes J, Campinho MA, Gaetano P, Duarte V, Hazlerigg DG, Jørgensen EH (2021) More than one way to smoltify a salmon? Effects of dietary and light treatment on smolt development and seawater growth performance in Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 532:736044
  18. Hamilton CD, Lydersen C, Aars J, Biuw M, Boltunov AN, Born EW, Dietz R, Folkow LP, Glazov DM, Haug T, Heide-Jørgenssen MP, Kettemer LE, Laidre KL, Øien N, Nordøy ES, Rikardsen AH, Rosing-Asvid A, Semenova V, Shpak OV, Sveegaard S, Ugarte F, Wiig Ø, Kovacs KM (2021) Marine mammal hotspots in the Greenland and Barents Seas. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 659: 3-28
  19. Wood SH (2021) The Pars Tuberalis and seasonal timing. In (eds: Ebling FJP, Piggins HD) Neuroendocrine Clocks and Calendars, Ch. 2, Masterclass in Neuroendocrinology 10, Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Cham, pp. 33-54 ISBN 978-3-030-55642-6
  20. West AC, Hazlerigg DH, Greier G (2021) Calendar timing in Teleost fish. In (eds: Ebling FJP, Piggins HD) Neuroendocrine Clocks and Calendars, Ch. 7, Masterclass in Neuroendocrinology 10, Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Cham, pp. 143-162 ISBN 978-3-030-55642-6




  1. Blix AS (2020) A possible cause of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Medical Hypotheses 136:109520
  2. Krüger A, Fabrizius A, Mikkelsen B, Siebert U, Folkow LP, Burmester T (2020) Transcriptome analysis reveals a high aerobic capacity in the whale brain. Comp Biochem Physiol A 240:110593
  3. van Dalum J, Melum VJ, Wood SH, Hazlerigg DG (2020) Maternal photoperiodic programming: melatonin and seasonal synchronization before birth. Frontiers in Endocrinology 10:Article 901
  4. Mason MJ, Wenger LMD, Hammer Ø, Blix AS (2020) Structure and function of respiratory turbinates in phocid seals. Polar Biol 43:157-173
  5. Hindell MA, Reisinger RR, Ropert-Coudert Y, Hückstädt LA, Trathan PN, Bornemann H, Charrassin J-B, Chown SL, Costa DP, Danis B, Lea M-A, Thompson D, Torres LG, Van de Putte AP, Alderman R, Andrews-Goff V, Arthur B, Ballard G, Bengtson J, Bester MN, Blix AS, Boehme L, Bost C-A, Boveng P, Cleeland J, Constantine R, Corney S, Crawford RJM, Dalla Rosa L, de Bruyn PJN, Delord K, Descamps S, Double M, Emmerson L, Fedak M, Friedlaender A, Gales N, Goebel ME, Goetz KT, Guinet C, Goldsworthy SD, Harcourt R, Hinke JT, Jerosch K, Kato A, Kerry KR, Kirkwood R, Kooyman GL, Kovacs KM, Lawton K, Lowther AD, Lydersen C, Lyver PO’B, Makhado AB, Márquez MEI, McDonald BI, McMahon CR, Muelbert M, Nachtsheim D, Nicholls KW, Nordøy ES, Olmastroni S, Phillips RA, Pistorius P, Plötz J, Pütz K, Ratcliffe N, Ryan PG, Santos M, Southwell C, Staniland I, Takahashi A, Tarroux A, Trivelpiece W, Wakefield E, Weimerskirch H, Wienecke B, Xavier JC, Wotherspoon S, Jonsen ID, Raymond B (2020) Tracking of marine predators to protect Southern Ocean ecosystems. Nature
  6. Ropert-Coudert Y, Van de Putte AP, Reisinger RR, Bornemann H, Charrassin J-B, Costa DP, Danis B, Hückstädt LA, Jonsen ID, Lea M-A, Thompson D, Torres LG, Trathan PN, Wotherspoon S, Ainley DG, Alderman R, Andrews-Goff V, Arthur B, Ballard G, Bengtson J, Bester MN, Blix AS, Boehme L, Bost C-A, Boveng P, Cleeland J, Constantine R, Crawford RJM, Dalla Rosa L, de Bruyn PJN, Delord K, Descamps S, Double M, Emmerson L, Fedak M, Friedlaender A, Gales N, Goebel ME, Goetz KT, Guinet C, Goldsworthy SD, Harcourt R, Hinke JT, Jerosch K, Kato A, Kerry KR, Kirkwood R, Kooyman GL, Kovacs KM, Lawton K, Lowther AD, Lydersen C, Lyver PO’B, Makhado AB, Márquez MEI, McDonald BI, McMahon CR, Muelbert M, Nachtsheim D, Nicholls KW, Nordøy ES, Olmastroni S, Phillips RA, Pistorius P, Plötz J, Pütz K, Ratcliffe N, Ryan PG, Santos M, Southwell C, Staniland I, Takahashi A, Tarroux A, Trivelpiece W, Wakefield E, Weimerskirch H, Wienecke B, Xavier JC,Raymond B Hindell MA (2020) The retrospective analysis of Antarctic tracking data project. Scientific Data 7:94 (11pp)
  7. Marmol-Guijarro A, Nudds R, Folkow L, Codd J (2020) Examining the accuracy of trackways for predicting gait selection and speed of locomotion. Frontiers in Zoology 17:17
  8. Nord A, Hegemann A, Folkow LP (2020) Reduced immune responsiveness contributes to winter energy conservation in an Arctic bird. J Exp Biol 223: jeb219287
  9. Solberg SBB, Kjelstrup S, Manganelli E, Kizilova N, Casado Barroso IL, Acquarone M, Folkow LP (2020) Energy efficiency of respiration in mature and newborn reindeer. J Comp Physiol B 190(4), 509-520
  10. Lomet D, Druart X, Hazlerigg D, Beltramo M, Dardentes H (2020) Circuit-level analysis identifies target genes of sex steroids in ewe seasonal breeding. Mol Cell Endocrinol 512: 110825
  11. Sáenz de Miera C, Beymer M, Routledge K, Król E, Selman C, Hazlerigg DG, Simonneaux V (2020) Photoperiodic regulation in a wild-derived mouse strain. J Exp Biol 223: jeb217687
  12. Iversen M, Mulugeta T, Blikeng BG, West AC, Jørgensen EH, Sandven SR, Hazlerigg D (2020) RNA profiling identifies novel, photoperiod-history dependent makers associated with enhanced saltwater performance in juvenile Atlantic salmon. PLoS ONE 15(4): e0227496
  13. Tyler NJC, Gregorini P, Parker KL, Hazlerigg DG (2020) Animal responses to environmental variation: physiological mechanisms in ecological models of performance in deer (Cervidae). Animal Production Science
  14. Appenroth D, Melum VJ, West AC, Dardentes H, Hazlerigg DG, Wagner GC (2020) Photoperiodic induction without light-mediated circadian entrainment in a high-Arctic resident bird. J Exp Biol 223, jeb220699
  15. Wood SH, Hindle MM, Mizoro Y, Cheng Y, Saer BRC, Miedzinska K, Christian HC, Begley N, McNeilly J, Meddle SL, Burt DW, Loudon ASI (2020) Circadian clock mechanism driving mammalian photoperiodism. Nature Communications 11:4291
  16. West AC, Iversen M, Jørgensen EH, Sandve SR, Hazlerigg DG, Wood SH (2020) Diversified regulation of circadian clock gene expression following whole genome duplication. PLoS Genetics16:e1009097
  17. Gessner C, Stillger MN, Mölders N, Fabrizius A, Folkow LP, Burmester T (2020) Cell culture experiments reveal that high S100B and clusterin levels may convey hypoxia-tolerance to the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) brain. Neuroscience 451: 226-239
  18. Acquarone M, Salgado-Flores A, Sundset MA (2020) The bacterial microbiome in the small intestine of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata). Microorganisms 8:1664
  19. van Rosmalen L, van Dalum J, Hazlerigg DG, Hut RA (2020) Gonads or body? Differences in gonadal and somatic photoperiodic growth response in two vole species. J Exp Biol 223, jeb230987
  20. de la Vega C, Mahaffey C, Tuerena RE, Yurkowski DJ, Ferguson SH, Stenson GB, Nordøy ES, Haug T, Biuw M, Smout S, Hopkins J, Tagliabue A, Jeffreys RM (2020) Arctic seals as tracers of environmental and ecological change. Limnol Oceanogr Lett
  21. Blix AS (2020) Peter Jul Melleby in memoriam. Polarboken 2019 – 2020. Oslo, Norsk Polarklubb, pp. 138-140.
  22. Blix AS (2020) Livet på ishavet. Polarboken 2019-2020. Oslo, Norsk Polarklubb, pp. 50-54.
  23. Blix AS (2020) M/S Polstjerna fra Moen – Norges fineste selfangstskute. Sønderled og Risør Historielag Årbok 2020, pp. 5-12.




  1. Węgrzyn MH, Wietrzyk-Pełka P, Galanty A, Cykowska-Marzencka B, Sundset MA (2019) Incomplete degradation of lichen usnic acid and atranorin in Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus). Polar Research 38, 3375
  2. Salgado-Flores A, Tveit AT, Wright A-D, Pope PB, Sundset MA (2019) Characterization of the cecum microbiome from wild and captiverock ptarmigans indigenous to Arctic Norway. PLoS ONE 14(3):e0213503
  3. Alvira-Iraizoz F, Nordøy ES (2019) Evidence of seawater drinking in fasting subadult hooded seals (Cystophora cristata). J Anim Behav Biometeorol 7:52-59
  4. Dardente H, Wood S, Ebling F, Sáenz de Miera (2019) An integrated view of mammalian seasonal endocrinology. J Endocrinol 31:e12729
  5. Pasquali V, Calizza E, Setini A, Hazlerigg D, Christoffersen KS (2019) Preliminary observations on the effect of light and temperature on the hatching success and rate of Lepidurus arcticus eggs. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution
  6. Nord A, Folkow LP (2019) Ambient temperature effects on stress-induced hyperthermia in Svalbard ptarmigan. Biology Open 8:bio043497
  7. Striberny A, Jørgensen EH, Klopp C, Magnanou E (2019) Arctic charr brain transcriptome strongly affected by summer seasonal growth but only subtly by feed deprivation. BMC Genomics 20:529
  8. Hazlerigg DG, Tyler NT (2019) Activity patterns in mammals: Circadian dominance challenged. PLoS Biology 17(7):e3000360
  9. Marmol-Guijarro A, Nudds R, Marrin J, Folkow LP, Codd J (2019) Terrestrial locomotion of the Svalbard rock ptarmigan: comparing field and laboratory treadmill studies. Scientific Reports 9:11451
  10. Dardente H, Lomet D, Chesneau D, Pellicer-Rubio M-T, Hazlerigg D (2019) Discontinuity in the molecular neuroendocrine response to increasing daylengths in the Ile-de-France ewes: Is transient Dio2 induction a key feature of circannual timing? J Neuroendocrinol 2019:e12775
  11. Denker E, Ebbesson LO, Hazlerigg DG, Macqueeen DJ (2019) Phylogenetic reclassification of vertebrate melatonin receptors to include Mel1d. G3: Genes Genomes Genetics 9(10):3225-3238
  12. Blévin P, Aars J, Andersen M, Blanchet M-A, Hanssen L, Herzke D, Jeffreys RM, Nordøy ES, Pinzone M, de la Vega C, Routti H (2019) Pelagic vs coastal – key drivers of pollutant levels in Barents Sea polar bears with contrasted space-use strategies. Environ Sci Technol
  13. Nymo IH, Davidson RK, Gilhuus M, Holmgren K, Mørk T, Lian H, Thorvaldsen R, Solvang HA, Folkow L, Tryland M (2019) Egglederbetennelse hos Svalbardryper i fangenskap. Norsk Veterinærtidsskrift 131(7):444-445
  14. Bradley MM, Perra M, Ahlstrøm Ø, Jenssen BM, Jørgensen EH, Fuglei E, Muir DCG, Sonne C (2019) Mandibular shape in farmed Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) exposed to persistent organic pollutants. Sci Tot Environ 646:1063-1068




  1. Nord A, Folkow LP (2018) Seasonal variation in the thermal responses to changing environmental temperature in the world’s northernmost land bird. J Exp Biol doi:10.1242/jeb.171124
  2. Lomet D, Piégu B, Wood SH, Dardentes H (2018) Anti-angiogenic VEGFAxxxb transcripts are not expressed in the medio-basal hypothalamus of the seasonal sheep. PLoS ONE 13(5): e 0197123
  3. West AC, Wood SH (2018) Seasonal physiology: making the future a thing of the past. Curr Opin Physiol 5: 1-8
  4. Gauthier PT, Evenset A, Christensen GN, Jørgensen EH, Vijayan MM (2018) Lifelong exposure to PCBs in the remote Norwegian Arctic disrupts the plasma stress metabolome in arctic charr. Environ Sci Technol 52: 868-876. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b05272
  5. Sonne C, Andersen-Ranberg E, Rajala EL, Agerholm JS, Bonefeld-Jørgensen E, Desforges J-P, Eulaers I, Jenssen BM, Koch A, Rosing-Asvid A, Siebert U, Tryland M, Mulvad G, Härkönen T, Acquarone M, Nordøy ES, Dietz R, Magnusson U (2018) Seroprevalence for Brucella spp. In the Baltic ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and East Greenland harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 198: 14-18.
  6. Blix AS (2018) Adaptations to deep and prolonged diving in phocid seals. J Exp Biol 221:jeb182972
  7. Blanchet M-A, Acquarone M, Biuw M, Larsen R, Nordøy ES, Folkow LP (2018) A life after research? First release of harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) after temporary captivity for scientific purposes. Aquatic Mammals 44(4): 343-356
  8. Hazlerigg D, Lomet D, Lincoln G, Dardentes H (2018) Neuroendocrine correlates of the critical day length response in the Soay sheep. J Neuroendocrin 2018;e12631 https://doi.rog/10.1111/jne.12631
  9. Andersen-Ranberg EU, Barnes CJ, Rasmussen L, Salgado-Flores A, Grøndahl C, Mosbacher JB, Hansen AJ, Sundset MA, Schmidt NM, Sonne C (2018) A comparative study on the faecal bacterial community and potential zoonotic bacteria of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in northeast Greenland, northwest Greenland and Norway. Microorganisms 6, 76;
  10. Strand JET, Hazlerigg D, Jørgensen EH (2018) Photoperiod revisited: is there a critical day length for triggering a complete parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar) J Fish Biol 93: 440-448
  11. Hansen KK, Sundset MA, Folkow LP, Nilsen M, Mathiesen SD (2018) Enteric methane emissions are lower from reindeer fed lichens compared to a concentrate feed. Polar Research 37:1, 1505396,
  12. Wood SH (2018) How can a binary switch within pars tuberalis control seasonal timing of reproduction? J Endocrinol 239: R13-R25



  1. Hoff MLM, Fabrizius A, Czech-Damal NU, Folkow LP, Burmester T (2017) Transcriptome analysis identifies key metabolic changes in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) brain in response to hypoxia and reoxygenation. PLoS ONE 12(1):e0169366. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0169366
  2. Folkow LP, Blix AS (2017) On the importance of understanding physiology when estimating energetics in cetaceans. Biology Open 6: 306-308
  3. Striberny A, Jørgensen EH (2017) Feedback from Arctic charr: Feed flavor stimulation and re-feeding after feed deprivation stimulates genes encoding both orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides. Gen Comp Endocrinol 246:71-80.
  4. Lorgen M, Jorgensen EH, Jordan WC, Martin SAM, Hazlerigg DG (2017) NFAT5 genes are part of the osmotic regulatory system in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Marine Genomics 31: 25-31.
  5. Jørgensen EH, Haatuft A, Puvanendran V, Mortensen A (2017) Effects of reduced water exchange rate and oxygen saturation on growth and stress indicators of juvenile lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) in aquaculture. Aquaculture 474: 26-33.
  6. Jørgensen EH, Maule AG, Evenset A, Christensen G, Bytningsvik J, Frantzen M, Nikiforov V, Faught E, Vijayan MM (2017) Biomarker response and hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axia functioning in Arctic charr from Bjørnøya (74°30’N), Norway, with high levels of organohalogenated compounds. Aquat Toxicol 187: 64-71.
  7. Moghadam HK, Johnsen H, Robinson N, Andersen Ø, Jørgensen EH, Johnsen HK, Bæhr V, Tveiten H (2017) Impact of early life stress on the methylome and transcriptome of Atlantic salmon. Scientific Reports 7:5023
  8. Sáenz de Miera C, Bothorel B, Jaeger C, Simonneaux V, Hazlerigg D (2017) Maternal photoperiod programs hypothalamic thyroid status via the fetal pituitary gland. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114: 8408-8413
  9. Desforges J-P, Levin M, Jasperse L, De Guise S, Eulaers I, Letcher RJ, Acquarone M, Nordoy E, Folkow L, Jensen TH, Grondahl C, Bertelsen MF, St Leger J, Almunia J, Sonne C, Dietz R (2017) Effects of polar bear and killer whale derived contaminant cocktails on marine mammal immunity. Environ Sci Technol 51; 11431-11439,
  10. Lomet D, Cognié J, Chesneau D, Dubois E, Hazlerigg D, Dardente H (2017) The impact of thyroid hormone in seasonal breeding has a restricted transcriptional signature. Cell Mol Life Sci DOI 10.1007/s00018-017-2667-x
  11. Hau M, Dominoni D, Casagrande S, Buck CL, Wagner G, Hazlerigg D, Greives T, Hut RA (2017) Timing as a sexually selected trait: the right mate at the right moment. Phil Trans R Soc B 372: 20160249.
  12. Hazlerigg D, Blix AS, Stokkan K-A (2017) Waiting for the sun: the circannual programme of reindeer is delayed by the recurrence of rhythmical melatonin secretion after the arctic night. J Exp Biol 220: 3869-3872 doi:10.1242/jeb.163741
  13. Philip AM, Jørgensen EH, Maule AG, Vijayan MM (2018) Extended fasting does not affect the liver innate immune response in rainbow trout. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 79: 67-74
  14. Rogstad T, Sonne C, Villanger GD, Ahlstrøm Ø, Fuglei E, Muir DCG, Jørgensen E, Jenssen BM (2017) Concentrations of vitamin A, E, thyroid and testosterone hormones in blood plasma and tissues from emaciated adult male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) dietary exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Environ Res 154: 284-290.
  15. Nordøy ES, Lager AR, Schots PC (2017) Seasonal changes in background levels of deuterium and oxygen-18 prove water drinking by harp seals, which affects the use of the doubly labelled water method. J Exp Biol 220: 4450-4455.
  16. Allern M, Sundset MA, Sandvoll R (2017) Peer observation of teaching as motivation for educational development – from teaching as private enterprise to a collective approach. 2nd EuroSoTL conference, June 8-9 2017, Lund, Sweden, 5 pp.
  17. Blix AS (2017) Arktisk Forening Tromsø 1947 – 2017. BokstavHuset AS, Tromsø ISBN 978-82-996604-1-9, 98 pp.
  18. Blix AS (2017) Fra herregård til herreklubb: Søndre Tollbodgate 1 i Tromsø. ISBN 978-82-991656-1-7
  19. Laws RM (2017) Large animals and wide horizons. Eds: Ian and Christine Parker and Arnoldus Schytte Blix, Janus Publishing Company LTD, Cambridge ISBN 978-1-85756-864-6




  1. Jørgensen EH, Bernier NJ, Maule AG, Vijayan MM (2016) Effect of long-term fasting and a subsequent meal on mRNA abundance of hypothalamic appetite regulators, central and peripheral leptin expression and plasma leptin levels in rainbow trout. Peptides 86: 162-170.
  2. Blix AS (2016) Om Nansenmedaljen og andre Nansenmedaljer. Den Norske Videnskaps-Akademi Årbok 2015, pp. 289-295.
  3. Tyler NJC, Stokkan K-A, Hogg CR, Nellemann C, Vistnes AI (2016) Cryptic impact: visual detection of corona light and avoidance of power lines by reindeer. Wildl Soc Bull 40:50-58 DOI: 10.1002/wsb.620
  4. Blix AS (2016) On Roald Amundsen’s scientific achievements. Polar Research 35, 31319,
  5. Wohlert D, Kröger J, Witt M, Schmitt O, Wree A, Czech-Damal N, Siebert U, Folkow L, Hanke F (2016) A comparative morphometric analysis of three cranial nerves in two phocids: The hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Anat Rec 299:370-378. doi: 10.1002/ar.23298
  6. Hoff MLM, Fabrizius A, Folkow LP, Burmester T (2016) An atypical distribution of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) brain may reflect a biochemical adaptation to diving. J Comp Physiol B 186:373-386. doi: 10.1007/s00360-015-0956-y.
  7. Blix AS (2016) Adaptations to polar life in mammals and birds. J Exp Biol 219: 1093-1105 doi:10.1242/jeb.120477
  8. Tyler NJC, Jacobsen K-O, Blix AS (2016) Behavioural responses of moulting barnacle geese to experimental helicopter noise and a predator. Can J Wildl Biol Management 5:10-23
  9. Salgado-Flores A, Hagen LH, Ishaq SL, Zamanzadeh M, Wright ADG, Pope PB, Sundset MA (2016) Rumen and cecum microbiomes in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are changed in response to a lichen diet and may affect enteric methane emissions. PLoS ONE 11(5): e0155213 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155213
  10. Tyler N, Stokkan K-A, Nellemann C, Vistnes AI, Hogg CR (2016) Ultrafiolett synsevne og unnvikelse av kraftledninger hos rein. Villreinen 31:78-82
  11. Blix AS, Kuttner S, Messelt EB (2016) Ascending aorta of hooded seals with particular emphasis on its vasa vasorum. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 311:R144-R149.
  12. Tyler NJC, Gregorini P, Forchhammer MC, Stokkan K-A, van Oort BEH, Hazlerigg DG (2016) Behavioral timing without clockwork: photoperiod-dependent trade-off between predation hazard and energy balance in an arctic ungulate. J Biol Rhythms 31:522-533 doi:10.1177/0748730416662778
  13. Dardente H, Wyse CA, Lincoln GA, Wagner GC, Hazlerigg DG (2016) Effects of photoperiod extension on clock gene and neuropeptide RNA expression in the SCN of the Soay sheep. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0159201 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159201
  14. Salgado-Flores A, Bockwoldt M, Hagen LH, Pope PB, Sundset MA (2016) First insight into the faecal microbiota of the high Arctic muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus). Microbial Genom doi: 10.1099/mgen.0.000066
  15. Lorgen M, Jorgensen EH, Jordan WC, Martin SAM, Hazlerigg DG (2016) NFAT5 genes are part of the osmotic regulatory system in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Mar Genomics,
  16. Magnanelli E, Wilhelmsen Ø, Acquarone M, Folkow LP, Kjelstrup S (2016) The nasal geometry of the reindeer gives energy-efficient respiration. J Non-Equil Thermodyn 42:59-78, DOI: 10.1515/jnet-2016-0038
  17. Fabrizius A, Hoff MLM, Engler G, Folkow LP, Burmester T (2016) When the brain goes diving: transcriptome analysis reveals a reduces aerobic energy metabolism and increased stress proteins in the seal brain. BMC Genomics 17:583 doi:10.1186/s12864-016-2892-y
  18. Geiseler S, Larson J, Folkow LP (2016) Synaptic transmission despite severe hypoxia in hippocampal slices of the deep-diving hooded seal. Neurosci 334: 39-46.
  19. Gurarie E, Bengtson JL, Bester MN, Blix AS, Cameron M, Bornemann H, Nordøy ES, Plötz J, Steinhage D, Boveng P (2016) Distribution, density and abundance of Antarctic ice seals off Queen Maud Land and the eastern Weddell Sea. Polar Biol doi:10.1007/s00300-016-2029-4
  20. Pasquali V, Gualtieri R, D’Alessandro G, Granberg M, Hazlerigg D, Cagnetti M, Leccese F (2016) Monitoring and analyzing of circadian and ultradian locomotor activity based on Raspberry-Pi. Electronics 5:58 doi:10.3390/electronics5030058
  21. Schots PC, Bue ME, Nordøy ES (2016) Hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) pups ingest snow and seawater during their post-weaning fast. J Comp Physiol B 187: 493-502 DOI: 10.1007/s00360-016-1048-3




  1. Ishaq SL, Sundset MA, Crouse J, Wright ADG (2015) High-throughput DNA sequencing of the moose rumen from different geographical locations reveals a core ruminal methanogenic archaeal diversity and a differential ciliate protozoal diversity. Microbial Genomics DOI: 10.1099/mgen.0.000034
  2. Blix AS (2015) Om en glemt slede fra en glemt ekspedisjon. Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi. Årbok 2014. Det Norske Videnskapsakademi, Oslo, pp. 383-386
  3. Blix A (2015) Richard Maitland Laws (1926-2014), CBE, FRS, ScD. Polar Res 34: 30182 (obituary)
  4. Blix AS, Kvadsheim PH, Kholodova MV, Sokolov V, Messelt EB, Tyler NJC (2015) Superb winter fur insulation in the small Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus). Rangifer 35: 53-60.
  5. Stevenson TJ, Visser ME, Arnold W, Barrett P, Biello S, Dawson A, Denlinger DL, Dominoni D, Ebling FJ, Elton S, Evans N, Ferguson HM, Foster RG, Hau M, Haydon DT, Hazlerigg DG, Heideman P, Hopcraft JGC, Jonsson NN, Kronfeld-Schor N, Kumar V, Lincoln GA, MacLeod R, Martin SAM, Martinez-Bakker M, Nelson RJ, Reed T, Robinson JE, Rock D, Schwartz WJ, Steffan-Dewenter I, Tauber E, Thackeray SJ, Umstatter C, Yoshimura T, Helm B (2015) Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security and ecosystems. Proc R Soc B 282: 20151453
  6. Striberny A, Ravuri CS, Jobling M, Jørgensen EH (2015) Seasonal differences in relative gene expression of putative central appetite regulators in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) do not reflect its annual feeding cycle. PLoS ONE 10(9): e0138857, p.1-13
  7. Hogg C, Neveu M, Folkow L, Stokkan K-A, Kam JH, Douglas RH, Jeffery G (2015) The eyes of the deep diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) enhance sensitivity to ultraviolet light. Biol Open 4(7): 812-818 doi:10.1242/bio.011304
  8. Hazlerigg D, Simonneaux V (2015) Seasonal regulation of reproduction in mammals. In (eds: T. Plant & A. Zeleznik): Knobil and Neill’s Physiology of Reproduction (4th edition), ch. 34, pp. 1575-1604, Elsevier
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  1. Blix AS, Folkow LP, Nordøy ES (2013) Changing the look on seals from pole to pole with satellite technology. In (eds: C. Verde and G. di Prisco): Adaptation and Evolution in Marine Environments, Volume 2, From Pole to Pole, Ch. 7, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-27349-0_7.
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  5. Geiseler SJ, Blix AS, Burns JM, Folkow LP (2013) Rapid postnatal development of myoglobin from large liver iron stores in hooded seals. J Exp Biol 216:1793-1798.
  6. Cazaméa-Catalan D, Magnanou E, Helland R, Besseau L, Boeuf G, Falcón J, Jørgensen EH (2013) Unique arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase-2 polymorphism in salmonids and profound variations in thermal stability and catalytic efficiency conferred by two residues. J Exp Biol 216:1938-1948.
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  8. Helgason LB, Wolkers H, Fuglei E, Ahlstrøm Ø, Muir D, Jørgensen EH (2013) Seasonal emaciation causes tissue redistribution and an increased potential for toxicity of lipophilic pollutants in farmed arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). Env Tox Chem 32: 1784-1792.
  9. Præsteng KE, Pope PB, Cann IKO, Mackie RI, Mathiesen SD, Folkow LP, Eijsink VGH, Sundset MA. (2013) Probiotic dosing of Ruminococcus flavevaciens affects rumen microbiome structure and function in reindeer. Microb Ecol 66: 840-849 DOI 10.1007/s00248-013-0279-z
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  11. Stokkan KA, Folkow L, Dukes J, Neveu M, Hogg C, Siefken S, Dakin S, Jeffery G. (2013) Shifting mirrors: adaptive changes in retinal reflections to winter darkness in Arctic reindeer. Proc R Soc B 280: 20132451




  1. Tryland M, Nymo IH, Nielsen O, Nordøy ES, Kovacs KM, Krafft BA, Thoresen SI, Åsbakk K, Osterrieder K, Roth SJ, Lydersen C, Godfroid J, Blix AS (2012) Serum chemistry and antibodies against pathogens in Antarctic fur seals, Weddell seals, crabeater seals, and Ross seals. J Wildl Dis 48:632-645
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  3. Lees JJ, Nudds RL, Folkow LP, Stokkan K-A, Codd JR (2012) Understanding sex differences in the cost of terrestrial locomotion. Proc R Soc B 279:826-832
  4. Lees JJ, Stokkan K-A, Folkow LP, Codd JR (2012) Locomotor development in the Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea). Polar Biol 35:867-874
  5. Blix AS (2012) Roald Amundsen: Forsker eller grobian? Nordisk Tidskrift 88:1-22
  6. Frøiland E, Jobling M, Björnsson BT, Kling P, Ravuri CS, Jørgensen EH (2012) Seasonal appetite regulation in the anadromous Arctic charr: Evidence for a role of adiposity in the regulation of appetite but not for leptin in signalling adiposity. Gen Comp Endocrinol 178:330-337
  7. Schneuer M, Flachsbarth S, Czech-Damal NU, Folkow LP, Siebert U, Burmester T (2012) Neuroglobin of seals and whales: Evidence for a divergent role in the diving brain. Neuroscience 223:35-44
  8. Blix AS, Ness J, Lian H, Callaghan TV (2012) Experimental reduction of food quality is not compensated with increased food intake in high-arctic muskoxen (Ovibus moschatus). British J Nutr 108:1337-1340
  9. Hallanger IG, Jørgensen EH, Fuglei E, Ahlstrøm Ø, Muir DCG, Jenssen BM (2012) Dietary contaminant exposure affects plasma testosterone, but not thyroid hormones, vitamin A, and vitamin E, in male juvenile arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus). J Tox Envir Health Part A 75:1298-1313
  10. Southwell C, Bengtson J, Bester M, Blix AS, Bornemann H, Boveng P, Cameron M, Forcada J, Laake J, Nordøy E, Plötz J, Rogers T, Southwell D, Steinhage D, Stewart BS, Trathan P (2012) A review of data on abundance, trends in the abundance, habitat use and diet of ice-breeding seals in the southern ocean. CCAMLR Science 18:48-73
  11. Ince C, van Kuijen A-M, Milstein DMJ, Yürük K, Folkow LP, Fokkens WJ, Blix AS (2012) Why Rudolph’s nose is red: observational study. BMJ 2012;345:e8311, pp 1-6
  12. Cazaméa-Catalan D, Magnanou E, Helland R, Vanegas G, Besseau L, Boeuf G, Paulin CH, Jørgensen EH, Falcón J (2012) Functional diversity of Teleost arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase-2: is the timezyme evolution driven by habitat temperature? Mol Ecol 21:5027-5041




  1. Wareing K, Tickle PG, Stokkan K-A, Codd JR, Sellers WI (2011) The musculoskeletal anatomy of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus): fore- and hindlimb. Polar Biol 10:1571-1578
  2. Wiseman S, Jørgensen EH, Maule AG, Vijayan MM (2011) Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr. Polar Biol 34:933-937
  3. Blix AS, Walløe L, Folkow LP (2011) Regulation of brain temperature in winter-acclimatized reindeer under heat stress. J Exp Biol 214: 3850-3856
  4. Blix AS (2011) The venous system of seals, with new ideas on the significance of the extradural intravertebral vein. J Exp Biol 214: 3507-3510
  5. Nudds RL, Folkow LP, Lees JJ, Tickle PG, Stokkan K-A, Codd JR (2011) Evidence for energy savings from aerial running in Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea). Proc R Soc B 278:2654-2661
  6. Ramirez J-M, Folkow LP, Ludvigsen S, Ramirez PN, Blix AS (2011) Slow intrinsic oscillations in thick neocortical slices of hypoxia tolerant deep diving seals. Neuroscience 177:35-42
  7. Hogg C, Neveu M, Stokkan K-A, Folkow L, Cottril P, Douglas R, Hunt D, Jeffery G (2011) Arctic reindeer extend their visual range into the ultraviolet. J Exp Biol 214:2014-2019
  8. Blix AS, Ness J, Lian H (2011) Experience from 40 years of muskox (Ovibos moschatus) farming in Norway. Rangifer 31:1-6
  9. Blix AS, Lian H, Ness J (2011) Immobilization of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) with etorphine and xylazine. Acta Vet Scand 53:42
  10. Strand JET, Davidsen JG, Jørgensen EH, Rikardsen AH (2011) Seaward migrating Atlantic salmon smolt with low levels of gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity; is sea entry delayed? Environ Biol Fish 90:317-321
  11. Præsteng KE, Mackie RI, Cann IKO, Mathiesen SD, Sundset MA (2011) Development of a signature probe targeting the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer of a ruminal Ruminococcus flavefaciens isolate from reindeer. Beneficial Microbes 2:47-55
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  1. Lu W, Meng QJ, Tyler N, Stokkan K-A, Loudon A (2010) A circadian clock is not required in an Arctic mammal. Curr Biol 20:533-537
  2. Folkow LP, Nordøy ES, Blix AS (2010) Remarkable development of diving performance and migrations of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) during their first year of life. Polar Biol 33:433-441.
  3. Lees JJ, Nudds RL, Stokkan K-A, Folkow LP, Codd JR (2010) Reduced metabolic cost of locomotion in winter adapted Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea). PLoS ONE 5(11):e15490 1-8
  4. Aarseth JJ, Frøiland E, Jørgensen EH (2010) Melatonin implantation during spring and summer does not affect the seasonal rhythm of feeding in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Polar Biol 33:379-388
  5. Letcher RJ, Bustnes JO, Dietz R, Jenssen BM, Jørgensen EH, Sonne C, Verreault J, Vijayan MM, Gabrielsen GW (2010) Exposure and effects assessment of persistent organohalogen contaminants in arctic wildlife and fish. Sci Tot Envir 408:2995-3043
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  7. Glad T, Kristiansen VF, Nielsen KM, Brusetti L, Wright A-DG, Sundset MA (2010) Ecological characterisation of the colonic microbiota in arctic and sub-arctic seals. Microb Ecol 60:320-330
  8. Glad T, Bernhardsen P, Nielsen KM, Brusetti L, Andersen M, Aars J, Sundset MA Bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in arctic Svalbard. BMC Microbiology 10:10
  9. Barboza PS, Bennett A, Lignot J-H, Mackie RI, McWhorter TJ, Secor SM, Skovgaard N, Sundset MA, Wang T (2010) Digestive challenges for vertebrate animals: microbial diversity, cardiorespiratory coupling, and dietary specialization. Physiol Biochem Zool 83:764-774
  10. Kvadsheim PH, Sevaldsen EM, Folkow LP, Blix AS (2010) Behavioural and physiological responses of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) to 1 to 7 kHz sonar signals. Aquat Mamm 36:239-247
  11. Blix AS, Walløe L, Messelt EB, Folkow LP (2010) Selective brain cooling and its vascular basis in diving seals. J Exp Biol 213:2610-2616
  12. Sundset MA, Barboza PS, Green TK, Folkow LP, Blix AS, Mathiesen SD (2010) Microbial degradation of usnic acid in the reindeer rumen. Naturwissenschaften 97:273-278
  13. Folkow LP, Blix AS (2010) Air breathers under water: diving mammals and birds. In: Respiratory Physiology of Vertebrates. Life with and without oxygen (ed: Nilsson GE). Ch. 7, pp 222-264, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
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  1. Ludvigsen S, Folkow LP (2009) Differences in in vitro cerebellar neuronal responses to hypoxia in eider ducks, chicken and rats. J Comp Physiol A 195:1021-1030
  2. Lestyk KC, Folkow LP, Blix AS, Hammill MO, Burns JM (2009) Development of myoglobin concentration and acid buffering capacity in harp (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded (Cystophora cristata) seals from birth to maturity. J Comp Physiol B 179:985-996
  3. Sundset MA, Edwards JE, Cheng YF, Senosiain RS, Fraile MN, Northwood KS, Præsteng KE, Glad T, Mathiesen SD, Wright A-DG (2009) Molecular diversity of the rumen microbiome of Norwegian reindeer on natural summer pasture. Microb Ecol 57:335-348
  4. Suzuki I, Naito Y, Folkow LP, Miyazaki N, Blix AS (2009) Validation of a device for accurate timing of feeding events in marine animals. Polar Biol 32:667-671
  5. Mitz SA, Reuss S, Folkow LP, Blix AS, Ramirez J-R, Hankeln T, Burmester T (2009) When the brain goes diving: glial oxidative metabolism may confer hypoxia tolerance to the seal brain. Neurosci 163:552-560








  1. Southwell CJ, Paxton CGM, Borchers DL, Boveng P, Nordøy ES, Blix AS, De La Mare WK (2008) Estimating population status under conditions of uncertainty: the Ross seal in East Antarctica. Antarctic Sci 20:123-133


  1. Sundset MA, Kohn A, Mathiesen SD, Præsteng K (2008) Eubacterium rangiferina, a novel usnic acid resistant bacterium from the reindeer rumen. Naturwissenschaften 95:741-749


  1. Josefsen TD, Mørk T, Christensen E, Lian H, Folkow L (2008) Aspergillose hos ærfuglunger i kunstig oppdrett. Norsk Veterinærtidsskrift 120:164 165


  1. Nordøy ES, Folkow LP, Potelov V, Prischemikhin V, Blix AS (2008) Seasonal distribution and dive behaviour of harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) of the White Sea – Barents Sea stock. Polar Biol. 31:1119-1135.


  1. Folkow LP, Ramirez J-M, Ludvigsen S, Ramirez N, Blix AS (2008) Remarkable neuronal hypoxia tolerance in the deep-diving adult hooded seal (Cystophora cristata). Neurosci Lett 446:147-150


  1. Folkow LP (2008) Coping with oxygen shortage – physiological adaptations to hypoxia in the deep-diving hooded seal. Acta Physiol 193 (Suppl. 664):74


  1. Silverin B, Wingfield J, Stokkan, K-A, Massa R, Järvinen A, Andersson N-Å, Lambrechts M, Sorace A, Blomqvist D (2008) Ambient temperature effects on photo induced gonadal cycles and hormonal secretion patterns in great tits from three different breeding latitudes. Horm Behav 54:60-68


  1. Zoetendal EG, Smith AH, Sundset MA, Mackie RI (2008) The BaeSR two-component regulatory system mediates resistance to condensed tannins in Escherichia coli. Appl Envir Microbiol 74:535-539





  1. Blix AS (2007) Minnetale over direktør dr.philos. Tore Gjelsvik. Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi. Årbok 2006. Det Norske Videnskapsakademi, Oslo, pp. 114-122


  1. Blix AS and Nordøy ES (2007) Ross seal (Ommatophoca rossii) annual distribution, diving behaviour, breeding and moulting, off Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. Polar Biol 30:1449-1458


  1. Burns JM, Lestyk KC, Folkow LP, Hammil MO and Blix AS (2007) Size and distribution of oxygen stores in harp and hooded seals from birth to maturity. J Comp Physiol B 177:687-700


  1. How OJ and Nordøy ES (2007) Seawater drinking restores water balance in dehydrated harp seals. J Comp Physiol B, 177:535-542


  1. van Oort BEH, Tyler NJC, Gerkema MP, Folkow LP and Stokkan K-A (2007) Where clocks are redundant: weak circadian mechanisms in reindeer living under polar photic conditions. Naturwissenschaften 94:183-194


  1. Ramirez J-M, Folkow LP and Blix AS (2007) Hypoxia tolerance in mammals and birds: From the wilderness to the clinic. Ann Rev Physiol 69:113-143


  1. Tyler NJC, Sundset MA, Strøm KB, Sara MN, Reinert E, Oskal N, Nellemann C, McCarthy JJ, Mathiesen SD, Martello ML, Magga OH, Hovelsrud GK, Hanssen-Bauer I, Eira NI and Corell RW (2007) Saami reindeer pastoralism under climate change: Applying a generalized framework for vulnerability studies to a sub-arctic-social-ecological system. Glob Envir Change 17:196-206


  1. Stokkan K-A, van Oort BEH, Tyler NJC and Loudon, ASI (2007) Adaptations for life in the Arctic; evidence that melatonin rhythms in reindeer are not driven by a circadian oscillator but remain acutely sensitive to environmental photoperiod. J Pineal Res 43:289-293


  1. Sundset MA, Cann IKO, Mathiesen SD, Præsteng KE and Mackie RI (2007) Novel rumen bacterial diversity in two geographically separated sub-species of reindeer. Microbial Ecol 54:424-438





  1. Fuglesteg, B.N., Haga ØE, Folkow LP, Fuglei E, Blix AS. 2006. Seasonal variations in basal metabolic rate, lower critical temperature and responses to temporary starvation in the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) from Svalbard. Polar Biol 29: 308-319





  1. Van Oort BEH, Tyler NJC, Gerkema MP, Folkow L, Blix AS and Stokkan KA (2005) Circadian organization in reindeer. Nature 438:1095-1096


  1. Mathiesen SD, Mackie RI, Aschfalk A, Ringø E and Sundset MA (2005) Microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract in reindeer – changes through season. In: Microbial Ecology of the Growing Animal; Biology of the Growing Animals Volume III. W Holzapfel and P Naughton (eds) pp 73-100. Elsevier Press, Oxford


  1. Kvadsheim PH, Folkow LP and Blix AS (2005) Inhibition of shivering in hypothermic seals during diving. Am J Physiol 289:R326-R331


  1. Tryland M, Klein J, Nordøy ES and Blix AS (2005) Isolation and partial characterization of parapoxvirus isolated from a skin lesion of a Weddell seal. Virus Res 108:83-87





  1. Henden T, Aasum E, Folkow L, Mjøs OD, Lathrop DA and Larsen TS (2004) Endogenous glycogen prevents Ca2+ overload and hypercontracture in harp seal myocardial cells during simulated ischemia. J Mol Cell Cardiol 37:43-50


  1. Stokkan KA, Van Oort BEH and Tyler NJC (2004) Biological rhythms in reindeer. J Anim Feed Sci 13:715-716


  1. Van Oort BEH, Tyler NJC, Storeheier PV and Stokkan KA (2004) The performance and validation of data logger for long-term determination of activity in free-ranging reindeer, Rangifer tarandus L. App Anim Behav Sci 89:299-308


  1. Vester HI, Folkow LP and Blix AS (2004) Click sounds produced by cod (Gadus morhua). J Acoust Soc Am 115:914-919


  1. Folkow LP, Nordøy ES and Blix AS (2004) Distribution and diving behaviour of harp seals (Phagophilus groenlandicus) from the Greenland Sea stock. Polar Biol 27:281-298


  1. Stokkan K-A and Aarseth JJ (2004) Melatonin reduces noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction in the uterine artery of pregnant hooded seals (Cystophora cristata). Eur J Physiol 447:405-407





  1. Mackie RI, Aminov RI, Hu W, Klieve AV, Ouwerkerk D, Sundset MA and Kamagata Y (2003) Ecology of uncultivated osscillospira species in the rumen of cattle, sheep, and reindeer as assessed by microscopy and molecular approaches. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:6808-6815


  1. Aarseth JJ and Stokkan K-A (2003) Quantitative differences in the pineal ultrastructure of perinatal and adult harp (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seals (Chystophora cristata). J Pineal Res 35:188-195


  1. Aarseth JJ, Van’t Hof TJ and Stokkan K-A (2003) Melatonin is rhythmic in newborn seals exposed to continuous light. J Comp Physiol B 173:37-42


  1. Storeheier PV, Sehested J, Diernæs L, Sundset MA and Mathiesen SD (2003) Effects of seasonal changes in food quality and food intake on the transport of sodium and butyrate across ruminal epithelium of reindeer. J Comp Physiol B 173: 391-399


  1. Storeheier PV, Mathiesen SD and Sundset MA (2003) Estimating faecal output in reindeer during winter. Livestock Prod Sci 84:23-30


  1. Storeheier PV, Sundset MA, Van Oort BEH, and Mathiesen SDM (2003) Food intake of free-ranging reindeer in winter. J Agric Sci 141:93-101





  1. Aschfalk A, Folkow L, Rud H, and Denzin N (2002) Apparent seroprevalence of salmonella spp. in harp seals in the Greenland Sea as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Vet Res Comm 26:523-530


  1. Storeheier PV, Mathiesen SD, Tyler NJC, Schjelderup I and Olsen MA (2002) Utilization of nitrogen- and mineral-rich vascular forage plants by reindeer in winter. J Agric Sci 139:151-160


  1. Kvadsheim PH and Aarseth JJ (2002) Thermal function of phocid seal fur. Mar Mamm Sci 18:952-962


  1. Storeheier PV, Mathiesen SD, Tyler NJC and Olsen MA (2002) Nutritive value of terricolous lichens for reindeer in winter. Lichenologist 34:247-257


  1. Nordøy ES and Thoresen SI (2002) Reference values for serum biochemical parameters in free-ranging harp seals. Vet Clin Pathol 31:98-105


  1. Olsen MA, Myklebust R, Kaino T, Elbrønd VS and Mathiesen SD (2002) The gastrointestinal tract of Adelie penguins - morphology and function. Polar Biol 25:641-649


  1. Lydersen C, Wolkers H, Severinsen T, Kleivane L, Nordøy ES and Skaare JU (2002) Blood is a poor substrate foor monitoring pollution burdens in phocid seals. Sci Total Environ 292:193-203


  1. Davidson AJ, Stokkan K-A, Yamazaki S and Menaker M (2002) Food-anticipatory activity and liver per1-luc activity in diabetic transgenic rats. Physiol Behav 76:21-26


  1. Reierth E and Stokkan K-A (2002) Biological Rhythms in Arctic Animals. In: “Biological Rhythms”. V Kumar (ed) pp 216-223. Narosa Publ House, New Delhi





  1. Heide-Jørgensen MP, Nordøy ES, Øien N, Folkow L, Kleivane L, Blix AS, Jensen MV and Laidre KL (2001) Satellite tracking of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) off the coast of northern Norway. J Cetacean Res Manage 3:175-178


  1. Fyhn M, Gabrielsen GW, Nordøy ES, Moe B, Langseth I and Bech C (2001) Individual variation in field metabolic rate of Kittiwakes (Rissa Tridactyla) during the chick-rearing period. Physiol Biochem Zool 74:343-355


  1. Eilertsen SM, Schjelderup I, Dryden GMcL and Mathiesen SD (2001) High protein pastures in spring - effects on body composition in reindeer. Rangifer 21:13-19


  1. Aarseth JJ, Nordøy ES and Stokkan KA (2001) Melatonin potentiates the vasoconstrictive effect of noradrenaline in renal artery from newborn hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) and harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). J Comp Physiol B 171:491-496


  1. Stokkan K-A, Yamazaki S, Tei H, Sakaki Y and Menaker M (2001) Entrainment of the circadian clock in the liver by feeding. Science 291:490-493


  1. Storeheier PV and Nordøy ES (2001) Physiological effects of seawater intake in adult harp seals in early phase I of fasting. Comp Biochem Physiol A 128:307-315





  1. Skalstad I and Nordøy ES (2000) Experimental evidence of seawater drinking in juvenile hooded (Cystophora cristata) and harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). J Comp Physiol B 170:395-401


  1. Folkow LP, Haug T, Nilssen KT and Nordøy ES (2000) Estimated food consumption of minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata in Northeast Atlantic waters in 1992-1995. NAMMCO Sci Pub 2:65-80


  1. Nilssen KT, Pedersen O-P, Folkow LP and Haug T (2000) Food consumption estimates of Barents Sea harp seals. NAMMCO Sci Pub 2:9-27


  1. Boily P, Kvadsheim PH and Folkow LP (2000) Cutaneous heat flux models do not reliably predict metabolic rates of marine mammals. J theor Biol 207:317-323


  1. Van Oort BEH, Tyler NJC, Reiert E and Stokkan K-A (2000) Biological rhythms in Arctic vertebrates. Rangifer 20:99-112


  1. Stenfors L-E, Sade J, Helleström S, Anniko M and Folkow LP (2000) Exostoses and cavernous venous formation in the external auditory canal of the hooded seal as a functional physiological organ. Acta Otolaryngol 120:940-943


  1. Mesteig K, Tyler NJC and Blix AS (2000) Seasonal changes in heart rate and food intake in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Acta Physiol Scand 170:145-151


  1. Odasz-Albrigtsen AM, Tømmervik H and Murphy P (2000) Decreased photosynthetic efficiency in plant species exposed to multiple airborne pollutants along the Russian-Norwegian border. Can J Bot 78:1021-1033


  1. Aas-Hansen Ø, Folkow LP and Blix AS (2000) Panting in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Am J Physiol 279:R1190-R1195


  1. Blix AS, Folkow LP and Sørlie DG (2000) Simulations of the effect of currently used grenade harpoons for the killing of whales using a pig-model. Acta Vet Scand 41:237-242


  1. Mathiesen SD, Vader MA, Rædergård VB, Sørmo W, Haga ØE, Tyler NJC and Hofman RR (2000) Functional anatomy of the omasum in high arctic Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) and Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Acta Vet Scand. 41:25-40


  1. Mathiesen SD, Sørmo W, Haga ØE, Norberg HJ, Utsi THA, Mathiesen SD and Tyler NJC (2000) The oral anatomy of Arctic ruminants: coping with seasonal changes. J Zool (Lond) 251:119-128


  1. Mathiesen SD, Haga ØE, Kaino T, Tyler NJC (2000) Diet composition, rumen papillation and maintenance of carcass mass in female Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in winter. J Zool (Lond) 251.129-138


  1. Olsen MA, Blix AS, Utsi THA, Mathiesen SD (2000) Chitinolytic bacteria in the minke whale forestomach. Can J Microbiol 46:85-94


  1. Nordgarden U, Folkow LP, Walløe L, Blix AS (2000) On the direction and velocity of blood flow in the extradural intravertebral vein of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) during simulated diving. Acta Physiol Scand 168:271-276


  1. Eilertsen SM, Schjelderup I, Mathiesen SD (2000) Plant quality and harvest in old meadows grazed by reindeer in spring. J Sci Food Agric 80:329-334





  1. Mathiesen SD Rædergård VB, Vader MA, Haga ØE, Norberg HJ, Sørmo W (1999) Salivary glands in Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) and in Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Rangifer 19:25-32


  1. Mathiesen SD, Utsi THA, Sørmo W (1999) Forage chemistry and digestive system in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in northern Norway and South Georgia. Rangifer 19:91-101


  1. Aarseth JJ, Nordøy ES, Blix AS (1999) The effect of body fat on basal metabolic rate in adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) Comp Biochem Physiol A 124:69-72


  1. Lincoln GA, Tyler NJC (1999) Role of oestradiol in the regulation of the seasonal antler cycle in female reindeer, Rangifer tarandus. J Reprod Fertil 115:167-174


  1. Sørmo W, Haga ØE, Gaare R, Langvatn R, Mathiesen SD (1999) Forage chemistry and fermentation chambers in Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus). J Zool 247:247-256


  1. Wasteson Y, Arnemo JM, Klungseth B, Vold L, Mathiesen SD, Olsen MA, Derocher AE (1999) Analysis of facecal samples from wild animals for verocytotozin producing Escherichia coli and E coli 0157. Vet Rec:646-647


  1. Odden Å, Folkow LP, Caputa M, Hotvedt R, Blix AS (1999) Brain cooling in diving seals. Acta Physiol Scand 166:77-78


  1. Cabanac AJ, Messelt EB, Folkow LP, Blix AS (1999) The structure and blood-storing function of the spleen of the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata). J Zool 248:75-81


  1. Folkow LP, Blix AS (1999) Diving behaviour of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) in the Greenland and Norwegian Seals. Polar Biol 22:61-74


  1. Eilertsen SM, Schjelderup I, Mathiesen SD (1999) Utilization of old meadow by reindeer in spring in northern Norway. Rangifer 19:3-11


  1. Reierth E, Van’T Hof TJ, Stokkan KA (1999) Seasonal and daily variations in plasma melatonin in the high-arctic Svalbard ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus hyperboreus) J Biol Rhythms 14:314-319





  1. Tøien Ø, Mercer JM (1998) Thermogenic responses to body cooling during fever induced by Staphylococcus aureus cell walls in rabbits. J Comp Physiol B.168:73-80


  1. Bøkenes L, Mercer JB (1998) A morphometric study of the salt gland in freshwater- and saltwater-adapted eider ducks (Somateria mollissima). J Exp Zool 280:395-402


  1. Moen R, Olsen MA, Haga ØE, Aagnes Utsi TH, Mathiesen SD (1998) Digestion of timothy silage and hay in reindeer. Rangifer 18:35-45


  1. Sørmo W, Haga ØE, Mathiesen SD (1998) Cellulolysis in the fermentation chambers in Svalbard reindeer. Rangifer 18:47-50


  1. Mårtensson P-E, Nordøy ES, Messelt EB, Blix AS (1998) Gut length, food transit time and diving habit in phocid seals. Polar Biol 20:213-217


  1. Caputa M, Folkow L, Blix AS (1998) Rapid brain cooling in diving ducks. Am J Physiol. 275:R363-R371


  1. Reierth E, Stokkan KA (1998) Dual entrainment by light and food in the Svalbard ptarmigan (Lagpus mutus hyperboreus). J Biol Rhythms 13:393-402


  1. Cabanac A, Folkow LP, Blix AS (1998) Effects of adrenergic and cholinergic drugs on splenic arteries and veins from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata). Comp Biochem Physiol A 120:277-281


  1. Olsen MA, Mathiesen SD (1998) The bacterial population adherent to plant particles in the rumen of reindeer fed lichen, timothy hay or silage. Rangifer 18:55-64


  1. Lohman S, Folkow LP, Østerud B, Sager G (1998) Changes in fibrinolytic activity in diving grey seals. Comp Biochem Physiol 120:693-698


  1. Reierth E, Stokkan KA (1998) Activity rhythm in High Arctic Svalbard ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus hyperboreus). Can J  Zool  76:2031-2039






  1. Tøien Ø, Mercer JB (1997) Can an unexpected depressed thermogenic response to body cooling during fever be explained by thermosensitivity changes? Ann NY Acad Sci 813:491-496


  1. Cabanac A, Folkow LP, Blix AS (1997) Volume capacity and contraction control of the seal spleen. J Appl Physiol 82:1989-1994


  1. Dietz MW, Van Mourik S, Tøien Ø, Koolmees PA, Monique HG, Tersteeg-Zijderveld MHG (1997) Participation of breast and leg muscles in shivering thermogenesis in young turkeys and guinea fowl. J Comp Physiol B 167:451-460


  1. Josefsen TD, Aagnes TH, Mathiesen SD (1997) Influence of diet on the occurrence of intraepithelial microabscesses and foreign bodies in ruminal mucosa of reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). J Vet Med 44:249-257


  1. Sørmo W, Haga ØE, White RG, Mathiesen SD (1997) Comparative aspects of volatile fatty acid production in the rumen and distal fermentation chamber in Svalbard reindeer. Rangifer 17:81-95


  1. Olsen MA, Aagnes TH, Mathiesen SD (1997) The effect of timothy silage on the bacterial population in rumen fluid of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) from natural summer and winter pasture. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 24:127-136


  1. Gotaas G, Milne E, Haggarty P, Tyler NJC (1997) Use of feces to estimate isotopic abundance in doubly labeled water studies in reindeer in summer and winter. Am J Physiol 273:R1451-R1456


  1. Ranheim B, Horsberg TE, Nymoen U, Søli NE, Tyler NJC, Arnemo JM (1997) Reversal of medetomidine-induced sedation in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) with atipamezole increases the medetomidine concentration in plasma. J Vet Pharmacol Therap 20:350-354


  1. Kvadsheim PH, Folkow LP (1997) Blubber and flipper heat transfer in harp seals. Acta Physiol Scand 161:385-395





  1. Olsen MA, Mathiesen SD (1996) Production rates of volatile fatty acids in the minke whale (Balenoptera acutorostrata) forestomach. Br J Nutr 75:21-31


  1. Olsen MA, Nilssen KT, Mathiessen SD (1996) Gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal system of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). J Zool 238:581-589


  1. Folkow LP, Mårtensson P-E, Blix AS (1996) Annual distribution of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) in the Greenland and Norwegian Seas. Polar Biol 179-189


  1. Kvadsheim PH, Folkow LP, Blix AS (1996) Thermal conductivity of minke whale blubber. J Therm Biol 21:123-128


  1. Aagnes TH, Blix AS, Mathiesen SD (1996) Food intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation in reindeer fed baled timothy silage in summer and winter. J Agric Sci 127:517-523


  1. Mårtensson P-E, Gotaas AR, Nordøy ES, Blix AS (1996) Seasonal changes in energy density of prey of Northeast Atlantic seals and whales. Mar Mamm Sci 12(4):635-640


  1. Tøien Ø, Mercer JB (1996) Thermosensitivity is reduced during fever induced by Staphylococcus aureus cell walls in rabbits. Eur J Physiol 432:66-74


  1. Aagnes TH, Mathiesen SD (1996) Gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract in reindeer, free-living and fed baled silage in summer and winter. Rangifer 16:31-40


  1. Josefsen TD, Aagnes TH, Mathiesen SD (1996) Influence of diet on the morphology of the ruminal papillae in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.). Rangifer 16:119-128


  1. Kvadsheim PH, Gotaas ARL, Folkow LP, Blix AS (1996) An experimental validation of heat loss models for marine mammals. J Theor Biol 184:15-23





  1. Blix AS, Folkow LP (1995) Daily energy expenditure in free living minke whales. Acta Physiol Scand 153:61-66


  1. Aagnes TH, Sørmo W, Mathiesen SD (1995) Ruminal microbial digestion in free-living, in captive lichen-fed, and starved reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in winter. Appl Environ Microbiol 583-591


  1. Oehme M, Schlabach M, Hummert K, Luckas B, Nordøy ES (1995) Determination of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls and pesticides in harp seals from the Greenland sea. Sci Total Environ 162:75-91


  1. Aagnes TH, Mathiesen SD (1995) Round baled grass silage as food for reindeer in winter. Rangifer 15:27-35


  1. Nordøy ES, Folkow LP, Blix AS (1995) Distribution and diving behaviour of crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus) off Queen Maud Land. Polar Biol 15:261-268


  1. Tøien Ø, Mercer JB (1995) Effect of total body core cooling during poly I:C-induced fever in rabbits. Am J Physiol 268:R1257-R1265


  1. Tøien Ø, Mercer JB (1995) Poly I:C-induced fever elevates threshold for shivering but reduces thermosensitivity in rabbits. Am J Physiol 268:R1266-R1272


  1. Stokkan K-A, Vaughan MK, Reiter RJ, Folkow LP, Mårtensson P-E, Sager G, Lydersen C, Blix AS (1995) Pineal and thyroid functions in newborn seals. Gen Comp Endocrinol 98:321-331


  1. Stokkan KA (1995) Pineal functions in newborn seals. In: Blix AS, Walløe L, Ulltang Ø (eds) Whales, seals, fish and man. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 377-382


  1. Mathiesen SD, Aagnes TH, Sørmo W, Nordøy ES, Blix AS, Olsen MA (1995) Digestive physiology of minke whales. In: Blix AS, Walløe L, Ulltang Ø (eds) Whales, seals, fish and man. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 351-359


  1. Nordøy ES, Mårtensson P-E, Lager AR, Folkow LP, Blix AS (1995) Food consumption of the Northeast Atlantic stock of harp seals. In: Blix AS, Walløe L, Ulltang Ø (eds) Whales, seals, fish and man. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 255-260


  1. Nordøy ES, Folkow LP, Mårtensson P-E, Blix AS (1995) Food requirements of Northeast Atlantic minke whales. In: Blix AS, Walløe L, Ulltang Ø (eds) Whales, seals, fish and man. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 307-317


  1. Bøkenes L, Mercer JB (1995) Salt gland function in the common eider duck (Somateria mollissima). J Comp Phys B 165:255-267


  1. Stokkan K-A, Lindgård K, Reierth E (1995) Photoperiodic and ambient temperature control of the annual body mass cycle in Svalbard ptarmigan. J Comp Phys B 165:359-365


  1. Elsner R, Øyasæter S, Saugstad OD, Blix AS (1995) Seal adaptations for long dives: recent studies of ischemia and oxygen radicals. In: Blix AS, Walløe L, Ulltang Ø (eds) Whales, seals, fish and man. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 371-376


  1. Folkow LP, Blix AS (1995) Distribution and diving behaviour of hooded seals. In: Blix AS, Walløe L, Ulltang Ø (eds) Whales, seals, fish and man. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 193-202


  1. Lindgård K, Näslund S, Stokkan KA (1995) Annual changes in body mass in captive Svalbard ptarmigan: role of changes in locomotor activity and food intake. J Comp Physiol B 165:445-449


  1. Olsen MA, Aagnes TH, Mathiesen SD (1995) Failure of cellulolysis in rumen of reindeer fed timothy silage. Rangifer 15:79-86


  1. Gotaas G, Tyler NJC (1995) Faeces is a reliable source of body water for measuring tritium in reindeer in summer and in winter. Rangifer 15:63-70


  1. Nordøy ES (1995) Do minke whales (Balenoptera acutorostrata) digest wax esters? Br J Nutr 74:712-722


  1. Nordøy ES (1995) Gastroliths in the harp seal Phoca groenlandica. Polar Res 14(3):335-338


  1. Moe RA, Bakken M, Haga Ø, Smith A (1995) Techniques for surgical implantation of radio transmitters in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes). J Zoo Wildl Med 26:422-429





  1. Stokkan KA, Reiter RJ (1994) Melatonin rhythms in Arctic urban residents. J Pineal Res 16:33-36


  1. Lincoln GA, Tyler NJC (1994) Role of gonadal hormones in the regulation of the seasonal antler cycle in female reindeer, Rangifer tarandus. J Reprod Fertil 101:129-138


  1. Skog EB, Folkow LP (1994) Nasal heat and water exchange is not an effector mechanism for water balance regulation in grey seals. Acta Physiol Scand 151:233-240


  1. Aagnes TH, Mathiessen SD (1994) Food and snow intake, body mass and rumen function in reindeer fed lichen and subsequently starved for 4 days. Rangifer 14:33-38


  1. Mårtensson PE, Nordøy ES, Blix AS (1994) Digestibility of crustaceans and capelin in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). Mar Mamm Sci 10:325-331


  1. Lager AR, Nordøy ES, Blix AS (1994) Seasonal changes in food intake of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) at 69oN. Mar Mamm Sci 10:332-341


  1. Olsen MA, Nordøy ES, Blix AS, Mathiesen SD (1994) Functional anatomy of gastrointestinal system of Northeastern Atlantic minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata). J Zool 234, 55-74


  1. Sørmo W, Aagnes TH, Olsen MA, Mathiesen SD (1994) The bacteriology of the small intestinal mucosa of free-living reindeer. Rangifer 14:65-78


  1. Nilssen KJ, Mathiesen SD, Blix AS (1994) Metabolic rate and plasma T3 in ad lib. fed and starved muskoxen. Rangifer 14:79-81


  1. Kvadsheim PH, Folkow LP, Blix AS (1994) A new device for measurement of the thermal conductivity of fur and blubber. J Therm Biol 19:431-435


  1. Stokkan KA, Tyler NJC, Reiter RJ (1994) The pineal gland signals autumn to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) exposed to the continuous daylight of the Arctic summer. Can J Zool 72:904-909


  1. Mårtensson P-E, Nordøy ES, Blix AS (1994) Digestibility of krill (Euphausia superba and Thysanoessa sp.) in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus). Br J Nutrit 72:713-716


  1. Olsen MA, Aagnes TH, Mathiesen SD (1994) Digestion of herring by indigenous bacteria in the minke whale forestomach. Appl Environ Micobiol 60:4445-4455





  1. Cunningham AA, Tyler NJC (1993) Cholangioma in a Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) Vet Rec 132:112-113


  1. Pond MC, Mattacks CA, Colby RH, Tyler NJC (1993) The anatomy, chemical composition and maximum glycolytic capacity of adipose tissue in wild Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) in winter. J Zool 229:17-40


  1. Cheng K-J, McAllister TA, Mathiesen SD, Blix AS, Orpin CG, Costeron JW (1993) Seasonal changes in the adherent microflora of the rumen in high-arctic Svalbard reindeer. Can J Microbiol 39:101-108


  1. Tøien Ø (1993) Dynamics of heat transfer to cold eggs in incubating bantam hens and black grouse. J Comp Phsyiol B 163:182-188


  1. Silverin B, Massa R, Stokkan KA (1993) Photoperiodic adaptation to breeding at different latitudes in great tits. Gen Comp Endocrinol 90:14-22


  1. Mercer JB, Hammel HT (1993) The shivering response during cross-circulation in the common eider duck (Somateria mollisima). Acta Physiol Scand 148:327-334


  1. Sørmo W, Mathiesen SD (1993) Bacteria in the small intestine of lichen-fed Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Lett Appl Microbiol 16:170-172


  1. Nordøy ES, Sørmo W, Blix AS (1993) In vitro digestibility of different prey species of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) Br J Nutrit 70:485-489


  1. Nordøy ES, Aakvaag A, Larsen TS (1993) Metabolic adaptations to fasting in harp seal pups. Physiol Zool 66:926-945


  1. Tøien Ø (1993) Control of shivering and heart rate in incubating bantam hens upon sudden exposure to cold eggs. Acta Physiol Scand 149:205-214


  1. Tyler NJC, Jonassen M (1993) Reindeer herding in Norway. A salute to world deer farming. In: Woodhouse I (ed) Proc 1st World Deer Congr, Deer Farmers Assoc. Wellington, N.Z. pp. 51-56


  1. Kuhnen G, Mercer JB (1993) Selective brain cooling in resting and exercising Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Acta Physiol Scand 147:281-288


  1. Stuen S, Krogsrud J, Hyllseth B, Tyler NJC (1993) Serosurvey of three virus infections in reindeer in northern Norway and Svalbard. Rangifer 13:215-220





  1. Henden T, Stokkan KA, Reiter RJ, Nonaka KO, Lerchl A, Jones DJ (1992) Age-associated reduction in pineal beta-adrenergic receptor density is prevented by life-long food restriction in rats. Biol Signals 1:34-39


  1. Mercer JB (1992) The shivering response in animals and man. Arct Med Res 50 (Suppl6):18-22


  1. Johnsen HK, Helle KB, Lundberg JM, Hökfelt T, Folkow LP (1992) Distribution and vasomotor effects of neuropeptides in angular oculi and facial veins of reindeer. Comp Biochem Physiol 1010A:269-276


  1. Blix AS, Letfer JW (1992) Noise and vibration in artificial polar bear dens as related to selected petroleum exploration and developmental activities. Arctic 45:20-24


  1. Nordøy ES, Stijfhoorn DE, Råheim A, Blix AS (1992) Water flux and early signs of entrance into phase III of fasting in grey seal pups. Acta Physiol Scand 144:477-482


  1. Bergland HP, Mercer JB (1992) The effect of rate of cooling, time of day and light regime on the shivering response in rabbits. Acta Physiol Scand 145:413-421


  1. Folkow LP, Blix AS (1992) Metabolic rates of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in cold water. Acta Physiol Scand 146:141-150


  1. Stokkan KA (1992) Energetics and adaptations to cold in ptarmigan in winter. Ornis Scand 23:355-370


  1. Lindgård K, Stokkan KA, LeMaho Y, Groscolas (1992) Protein utilization during starvation in fat and lean Svalbard ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus hyperboreus). J Comp Physiol B 162:607-613


  1. Folkow LP (1992) Adrenergic vasomotor responses in nasal mucosa of hooded seals. Am J Physiol 263:R1291-R1297





  1. Stokkan KA, Reiter RJ, Nonaka KO, Lerchl A, Yu BP, Vaughan MK (1991) Food restriction retards aging of the pineal gland. Brain Res 545:66-72


  1. Stokkan KA, Nonaka KO, Lerchl A, Vaughan MK, Reiter RJ (1991) Low temperatures stimulates pineal activity in Syrian hamster. J Pineal Res 10:43-48


  1. Lerchl A, Reiter RJ, Howes KA, Nonaka KO, Stokkan KA (1991) Evidence that extremely low frequency Ca2+-cyclotron resonance depresses pineal melatonin synthesis in vitro. Neurosci Lett 124:213-215


  1. Nordøy ES, Blix AS (1991) Glucose and ketone body turnover in fasting grey seal pups. Acta Physiol Scand 141:565-571


  1. Tyler NJC (1991) Short-term behavioural responses of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) to direct provocation by a snowmobile. Biol Conserv 56:179-194


  1. Tyler NJC (1991) Effects of age and reproductive status on fat and muscle reserves in female Svalbard reindeer in autumn. In: Brown RD (ed) The Biology of Deer. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 233-237


  1. Lincoln GA, Tyler NJC (1991) Antler growth in male and female reindeer calves occurs in the absence of the Gonads. In: Brown ED (ed) The Biology of Deer. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 493-498


  1. Mercer JB (1991) The shivering response in animals and man. Arct Med Res 50 (Suppl 6):18-22


  1. Folkow LP, Blix AS (1991) Norwegian whale sighting and acoustic surveys in the Atlantic Ocean during the winter of 1989/90. Rep. int. Whal. Commn. 41: 531-538.





  1. Nordøy ES, Ingebretsen OJ, Blix AS (1990) Depressed metabolism and low protein catabolism in fasting grey seal pups. Acta Physiol Scand 139:361-369


  1. Tyler NJC, Hotvedt R, Blix AS, Sørensen DR (1990) Immobilization of Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and Svalbard reindeer (R. t. platyhunchus) with Medetomidine and Medetomedine-Ketamine and reversal of immobilization with Atipamezole. Acta Vet Scand 31:479-488


  1. Stokkan KA, Sharp PJ (1990) Seasonal breeding in high-arctic ptarmigan. In: Wada M (ed) Endocrinology of Birds: Molecular to Behavioral. Japan Sci Soc Press, Tokyo/Springer-Verlag Berlin, pp 251-258


  1. Moens U, Wold I, Mathiesen SD, Jørgensen T (1990) Parapoxvirus papillomatosis in the muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus): genetical differences between the virus causing new outbreak in vaccinated herd, the vaccine virus and a local Orf virus. Acta Vet Scand 31:17-25


  1. Brix O, Bårdgard A, Mathiesen SD, Tyler NJC, Nuutinen M, Condo SG, Giardina B (1990) Oxygen transport in the blood of arctic mammals: adaptation to local heterothermia. J Comp Physiol B 159:655-660


  1. Johnsen HK, Nilssen KJ, Rognmo A, Blix AS (1990) Reindeer breathe less and save water in cold. Rangifer Special Issue No.3: 243-247


  1. Tyler NJC, Blix AS (1990) Survival strategies in arctic ungulates. Rangifer Special Issue No.3: 211-230


  1. Folkow LP, Blix AS (1990) Passive acoustic censusing of cetaceans. Can passive acoustics be employed to study distribution and migration of northeast Atlantic minke whales? North Atlantic Studies 2(1-2):79-81.





  1. Mortensen A, Blix AS (1989) Seasonal changes in energy intake, energy expenditure, and digestibility in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigan and Norwegian willow ptarmigan. Ornis Scand 20:22-28


  1. Mercer JB, Hammel HT (1989) Total calorimetry and temperature regulation in the nine-banded armadillo. Acta Physiol Scand 135:579-589


  1. Blix AS (1989) Arctic resignation: winter dormancy without hypothermia. In: Malan A and Canguilhem (eds) Living in the cold, 2nd Int Symp, John Libbey, London, pp 117-119


  1. Folkow LP, Blix AS (1989) Thermoregulatory control of expired air temperature in diving harp seals. Am J Physiol 257:R306-R310


  1. Lindgård K, Stokkan KA (1989) Daylength control of food intake and body weight in Svalbard ptarmigan Lagopus mutus hyperboreus. Ornis Scand 20:176-180


  1. Mercer JB (1989) The shivering response in common eider ducks. In: Bech C and Reinertsen RE (eds) Physiology of cold adaptation in birds. Plenum press. pp 17-26


  1. Giardina B, Condo SG, El-Sherbini S, Mathiesen S, Tyler N, Nuutinen M, Bårdgard, Brix O (1989) Arctic life adaptation-I. The function of reindeer hemoglobin. Comp Biochem Physiol 94B:129-133


  1. Brix O, Bårdgard A, Mathiesen S, El-Sherbini S, Saverio GC, Biardina B (1989) Arctic life adaptation-II. The function of musk ox (Ovibos muschatos) hemoglobin. Comp Biochem Physiol 94B:135-138


  1. Tyler NJC, Øritsland A (1989) Why don't Svalbard reindeer migrate? Hol Ecol 12:369-376


  1. Callaghan TV, Carlsson BÅ, Tyler NJC (1989) Historical records of climate-related growth in Cassiope tetragona from the Arctic. J Ecol 77:823-837





  1. Jørgensen E, Blix AS (1988) Energy conservation by restricted body cooling in cold-exposed Willow Ptarmigan chicks? Ornis Scand 19:17-20


  1. Orpin CG (1988) Genetic approaches to the improvement of lignocellulose degradation in the rumen. In: Aubert JP, Beguin P, and MilletJ (eds) Biochemistry and genetics of cellulose degradation. Academic Press, pp 171-179


  1. Nordøy ES, Blix AS (1988) Sources of error in estimating food requirements of seals. Polar Rec 24:62-64


  1. Stokkan K-A, Sharp PJ, Dunn IC, Lea RW (1988) Endochrine changes in photostimulated willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus) and Svalbard ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus hyperboreus). Gen Comp Endocrinol 70:169-177


  1. Johnsen HK, Folkow LP (1988) Vascular control of brain cooling in reindeer. Am J Physiol 254:R730-R739


  1. Blix AS (1988) Cardiovascular responses to diving. Acta Physiol Scand 133 (Suppl 571):61-68


  1. Orpin CG, Andersen JM (1988) The animal environment. In: Lynch JM and Hobbie JE (eds) Microorganisms in action: Concepts and applications in microbial ecology. Blackwell UK, pp 163-192


  1. Folkow LP, Blix AS, Eide TJ (1988) Anatomical and functional aspects of the nasal mucosal and opthalmic retia of phocid seals. J Zool 216:417-436


  1. Orpin CG (1988) Nutrition and biochemistry of anaerobic chytridiomycetes. BioSystems 21:365-370


  1. Orpin CG, Hazlewood GP, Mann SP (1988) Possibilities of the Use of Recombinant-DNA techniques with Rumen Microorganisms. Animal Feed Sci Technol 21:161-174


  1. Stokkan K-A, Blix AS (1988) Survival strategies in the Svalbard Rock ptarmigan. In: Ouellet H (ed) Acta XIX Congr Int Ornithol. Univ Ottawa Press, Ottawa. pp 2500-2506


  1. Stokkan K-A (1988) Seasonal termination of reproduction in ptarmigan. In: Ouellet H (ed) Acta XIX Congr Int Ornithol. Univ Ottawa Press, Ottawa. pp 641-645


  1. Munn EA, Orpin CG, Greenwood CA (1988) The ultrastructure and possible relationships of four obligate anaerobic chytridiomycete fungi from the rumen of sheep. BioSystems 22:67-81


  1. Dehority BA, Orpin CG (1988) Development of, and natural fluctuations in, rumen microbial populations. In: Hobson PN (ed.) The rumen microbial ecosystem. Elsevier Appl Sci Publ, London, pp 151-183


  1. Orpin CG and Joblin KN (1988) The rumen anaerobic fungi. In: Hobson PN (ed.) The rumen microbial ecosystem. Elsevier Appl Sci Publ, London, pp 129-150





  1. Mathiesen SD, Orpin CG, Greenwood Y, Blix AS (1987) Seasonal changes in the cecal microflora of the high-arctic Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus). Appl Environ Microbiol 53:114-118


  1. Williams AG, Orpin CG (1987) Polysaccharide-degrading enzymes formed by three species of anaerobic rumen fungi grown on a range of carbohydrate substrates. Can J Microbiol 33:418-426


  1. Williams AG, Orpin CG (1987) Glycoside hydrolase enzymes present in the zoospore and vegetative growth stages of the rumen fungi Neocallimastix patriciarum Piromonas communis, and an unidentified isolate, grown on a range of carbohydrates. Can J Microbiol 33:427-434


  1. Blix AS (1987) Diving responses: fact or fiction. NIPS 2:64-66


  1. Mercer JB, Simon E (1987) Appropriate and inappropriate hypothalamic cold thermosensitivity in willow ptarmigan. Acta Physiol Scand 131:73-80


  1. Johnsen HK, Blix AS, Mercer JB, Bolz K-D (1987) Selective cooling of the brain in reindeer. Am J Physiol 253:R848-R853


  1. Folkow L, Blix AS (1987) Nasal heat and water exchange in gray seals. Am J Physiol 253:R883-R889


  1. Dickson DPE, Meagher A, Nilssen K, Borch Johnsen B (1987) Seasonal variation in the form of iron in the liver of Spitsbergen reindeer - a mossbauer spectroscopic study. Biochim Biophys Acta 924:442-446


  1. Borch Johnsen B, Nilssen K (1987) Seasonal overload in Svalbard reindeer liver J Nutrition 117:2072-2078


  1. Tyler NJC (1987) Fertility in female reindeer: the effects of nutrition and growth. Rangifer 7:37-41


  1. Lentfer JW, Galster WA (1987) Mercury in polar bears from Alaska. J Wildl Dis 23:338-341





  1. Mortensen A, Blix AS (1986) Seasonal changes in resting metabolic rate and mass-specific conductance in Svalbard ptarmigan, Norwegian rock ptarmigan and Norwegian willow ptarmigan. Ornis Scand 17:8-13. 1986


  1. Stokkan KA, Mortensen A, Blix AS (1986) Food intake, feeding rhythm, and body mass regulation in Svalbard rock ptarmigan. Am J Physiol 251:R264-R267


  1. Stokkan KA, Sharp PJ, Unander S (1986) The annual breeding cycle of the high arctic Svalbard ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus hyperboreus). Gen Comp Endocrinol 61:446-451


  1. Blix AS (1986) Diving bradycardia - fact or fiction? In: Brubakk AO, Kanwisher JW, Sundnes G (eds) Diving in animals and man. Tapir Publishers, Trondheim, pp. 205-228


  1. Folkow LP, Mercer JB (1986) Partition of heat loss in resting and exercising winter- and summer-insulated reindeer. Am J Physiol 251:R32-R40


  1. Kiessling K-H, Kiessling A, Nilssen K, Andersson LL (1986) Histochemical and enzymatic differences in skeletal muscle from Svalbard reindeer during the summer and winter. Rangifer 6:2-7


  1. Orpin CG, Mathiesen SD (1986) Microcetus lappu gen. nov., sp.nov.: New species of ciliated protozoon from the bovine Rumen. Appl Environ Microbiol 52:527-530





  1. Gabrielsen GW, Smith EA (1985) Physiological responses associated with feigned death in the American opossum. Acta Physiol Scand 123:393-398


  1. Stokkan KA, Harvey H, Klandorf, Unander S, Blix SA (1985) Endocrine changes associated with fat deposition and mobilization in Svalbard ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus hyperboreus). Gen Comp Endocrinol 58:76-80


  1. Mortensen A, Nordøy ES, Blix AS (1985) Seasonal changes in the body composition of the Norwegian rock ptarmigan Lagopus mutus. Ornis Scand 16:25-28


  1. Mortensen A, Blix AS (1985) Seasonal changes in the effects of starvation on metabolic rate and regulation of body weight in Svalbard ptarmigan. Ornis Scand 16:20-24


  1. Larsen T, Nilsson NÖ, Blix AS (1985) Effects of prolonged food restriction on some aspects of lipid metabolism in Norwegian and Svalbard reindeer. Acta Physiol Scand 124:173-180


  1. Nilssen KJ, Bye K, Sundsfjord JA, Blix AS (1985) Seasonal changes in T3, FT4 and cortisol in free-ranging Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus). Gen Comp Endocrinol 59:210-213


  1. Mathiesen SD, Jørgensen T, Traavik T, Blix AS (1985) On contagious exthyma and its treatment in muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus). Acta Vet Scand 26:120-126


  1. Jørgensen E, Blix AS (1985) Effects of climate and nutrition on growth and survival of Willow ptarmigan chicks. Ornis Scand 16:99-107


  1. Blix AS (1985) Diving response of mammals and birds. In: Rey L (ed) Arctic Underwater Operations. Graham & Trotman, London, pp 73-80


  1. Mercer JB, Johnsen HK, Mathiesen SD, Blix AS (1985) An intra ruminal heat exchanger for use in large conscious animals. Rangifer 5:10-14


  1. Parker H (1985) Compensatory reproduction through renesting in willow ptarmigan. J Wildl Manage 49:599-604


  1. Larsen TS, Blix AS (1985) Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer. Rangifer 5:2-9


  1. Larsen TS, Nilsson NÖ, Blix AS (1985) Seasonal changes in lipogenesis and lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from Svalbard and Norwegian reindeer. Acta Physiol Scand 123:97-104


  1. Mercer JB, Johnsen HK, Blix AS, Hotvedt R (1985) Central control of expired air temperature and other thermoregulatory effectors in reindeer. Am J Physiol 248:R679-R685


  1. Gabrielsen GW, Blix AS, Ursin H (1985) Orienting and freezing responses in incubating ptarmigan hens. Physiol Behav 34:925-934


  1. Johnsen HK, Rognmo A, Nilssen KJ, Blix AS (1985) Seasonal changes in the relative importance of different avenues of heat loss in resting and running reindeer. Acta Physiol Scand 123:73-79


  1. Gabrielsen GW (1985) Free and forced diving in ducks: habituation of the initial dive response. Acta Physiol Scand 123:67-72


  1. Larsen TS, Lagerkrantz H, Riemersma RA, Blix AS (1985) Seasonal changes in blood lipids, adrenaline, noradrenaline, glucose and insulin in Norwegian reindeer. Acta Physiol Scand 124:53-59


  1. Larsen TS, Nilssen KJ (1985) On the hormonal regulation of lipolysis in isolated reindeer adipocytes. Acta Physiol Scand 125:547-552


  1. Orpin CG, Matiesen SD, Greenwood Y, Blix AS (1985) Seasonal changes in the ruminal microflora of the high-arctic Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus). Appl Environ Microbiol 50:144-151


  1. Hanssen I, Utne F (1985) Spring phenology, egg quality and chick production in Willow Grouse (Lagopus l. lagopus) in northern Norway. Cinclus 8:77-81


  1. Parker H (1985) Breeding performance and aspects of habital selection in sub-arctic hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix). Cinclus 8:100-105


  1. Parker H (1985) Effect of culling on population size in hooded crows Corvus corone cornix. Ornis Scand 16:299-304


  1. Larsen TS, Nilsson NÖ, Belfrage P (1985) Seasonal changes in hormone-sensitive lipase activity in adipose tissue from Norwegian and Svalbard reindeer. Acta Physiol Scand 125:735-738


  1. Pedersen HC, Steen JB (1985) Parental care and chick production in a fluctuating population of willow ptarmigan. Ornis Scand 16:270-276


  1. Elsner R, Millard RW, Kjekshus JK, White F, Blix AS, Kemper WS (1985) Coronary blood flow and myocardial segment dimensions during simulated dives in seals. Am J Physiol 249:H1119-H1126


  1. Unander S, Mortensen A, Elvebakk A (1985) Seasonal changes in crop content of the Svalbard ptarmigan Lagopus mutus hyperboreus. Polar Res 3:239-245


  1. Markussen KA, Rognmo, Blix AS (1985) Some aspects of thermoregulation in newborn reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Acta Physiol Scand 123:215-220


  1. Nordøy ES, Blix AS (1985) Energy sources in fasting grey seal pups evaluated with computer tomography. Am J Physiol 249:R471-R476


  1. Larsen TS, Blix AS, Nilssen KJ, Belfrage P (1985) Mechanisms involved in fat mobilization during winter in reindeer. Acta Physiol Scand 124 (Suppl):542


  1. Johnsen HK, Blix AS, Jørgensen L, Mercer JB (1985) Vascular basis for regulation of nasal heat exchange in reindeer. Am J Physiol 249:R617-R623


  1. Stokkan KA, Sharp PJ, Moss R (1985) Seasonal breeding in grouse and ptarmigan. In: Lofts B, Holmes WN (eds) Current Trends in Comparative Endocrinology. Hong Kong Univ Press, Hong Kong, pp 711-714





  1. Blix AS, Elsner R, Kjekshus JK (1984) How seals avoid myocardial infarction when they should have got it. Eur Surg Res 16 (suppl 2):22-27


  1. Mortensen A (1984) Importance of microbial nitrogen metabolism in the ceca of birds. In: Kling MJ, Reddy CA (eds) Current perspectives in microbial ecology. Am Soc Microbiol, pp 273-278


  1. Stokkan KA, Sharp PJ (1984) The development of photorefractoriness in castrated willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus). Gen Comp Endocrinol 54:402-408


  1. Nilssen KJ, Johnsen HK, Rognmo A, Blix AS (1984) Heart rate and energy expenditure in resting and running Svalbard and Norwegian reindeer. Am J Physiol 246:R963-R967


  1. Mathiesen SD, Orpin CG, Blix AS (1984) Rumen microbial adaptation to fiber digestion in Svalbard reindeer. Can J Anim Sci 64 (Suppl):261-262


  1. Gaudernack G, Halvorsen O, Skorping A, Stokkan KA (1984) Humoral immunity and output of first-stage larvae of Elaphostrongylus rangiferi (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea) by infected reindeer, Rangifer tarandus tarandus. J Helminthol 58:13-18


  1. Gjerstad KO, Hanssen I (1984) Experimental lead poisoning in willow ptarmigan. J Wildl Manage 48:1018-1022


  1. Hanssen I, Grammeltvedt R, Hellemann A-L (1984) Effects of different diets on viability, and gut morphology and bacteriology in captive willow ptarmigan chicks (Lagopus l. lagopus) Acta Vet Scand 25:67-75


  1. Mortensen A, Tindall A (1984) The role of urea in nitrogen excretion and caecal nitrogen metabolism in willow ptarmigan. J Comp Physiol B 155:71-74


  1. Nilssen KJ, Sundsfjord JA, Blix AS (1984) Regulation of metabolic rate in Svalbard and Norwegian reindeer. Am J Physiol 247:R837-R841


  1. Parker H (1984) Effect of corvid removal on reproduction of willow ptarmigan and black grouse. J Wildl Manage 48:1197-1205


  1. Blix SA, Grav HJ, Markussen KA, White RG (1984) Modes of thermal protection in newborn muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus). Acta Physiol Scand 122:443-453


  1. Pedersen HC (1984) Territory size, mating status, and individual survival of males in a fluctuating population of willow Ptarmigan. Ornis Scand 15:197-203


  1. Nilssen KJ, Mathiesen SD, Solberg E, Blix AS (1984) Use of progesterone for diagnosis of pregnancy in muskoxen. Biol Pap Univ Alaska 4:186


  1. Mathiesen SD, Rognmo, Blix AS (1984) A test of the usefulness of a commercially available mill "waste product" (AB-84) as feed for starving reindeer. Rangifer 4:28-34





  1. Blix AS, Folkow B (1983) Cardiovascular adjustments to diving in mammals and birds. In: Shepherd JT, Abboud FM (eds) Handbook of Physiology – the cardiovascular system III. Am Physiol Soc, Bethesda, pp 917-945


  1. Blix AS, Johnsen HK (1983) Aspects of nasal heat exchange in resting reindeer. J Physiol 340:445-454


  1. Blix AS, Elsner R, Kjekshus JK (1983) Cardiac output and its distribution through capillaries and A-V shunts in diving seals. Acta Physiol Scand 118:109-116


  1. Larsen TS, Nilsson NÖ, Blix AS (1983) Effects of volatile fatty acids and ketone bodies on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Acta Physiol Scand 117:451-455


  1. Lentfer JW (1983) Alaskan polar bear movements from mark and recovery. Arctic 36:282-288


  1. Reimers E, Ringberg T (1983) Seasonal changes in body weights of Svalbard reindeer from birth to maturity. Acta Zool Fenn 175:69-72


  1. Blix AS, Elsner R, Franklin D, Hol R, Kjekshus JK, Millard R (1983) Regulation of coronary blood flow and myocardial metabolism in the diving seal. In: Refsum H, Jynge P, Mjøs OD (eds) Myocardial ischaemia and protection. Churchill Linvingstone, London, pp 152-156


  1. Blix AS, Johnsen HK, Mercer JB (1983) On nasal heat exchanges and the structural basis for its regulation in reindeer. J Physiol (Lond) 343:108P-109P


  1. Mortensen A, Unander S, Kolstad M, Blix AS (1983) Seasonal changes in body composition and crop content of Spitzbergen ptarmigan Lagopus mutus hyperboreus. Ornis Scand 14:144-148


  1. Rognmo A, Markussen KA, Jacobsen E, Grav HJ, Blix AS (1983) Effects of improved nutrition in pregnant reindeer in milk quality, calf birth weight, growth and mortality. Rangifer 3:10-18


  1. Blix AS, Fay FH, Ronald K (1983) On testicular cooling in phocid seals. Polar Res 1:231-233


  1. Blix AS Johnsen HK, Mercer JB (1983) Central control of thermal balance in Norwegian reindeer. J Physiol 343:109-110


  1. Blom A, Sjaastad ØV, Jacobsen E (1983) Plasma levels of progesterone and oestradiol-17 in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) during pregnancy. Acta Vet Scand 24:287-297


  1. Nilssen KJ, Hove K, Jorde R (1983) Insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide secretion in young milk-fed and adult goats. Am J Physiol 244:E209-E215





  1. Stokkan KA, Sharp PJ, Moss R (1982) Development of photorefractoriness in willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus) and red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) exposed to different photoperiods. Gen Comp Endocrinol 46:281-287


  1. Hanssen I (1982) Clostridium perfringens type A toxins in relation to nephritis and uric acid diathesis in captive willow ptarmigan (Lagopus l. lagopus). Acta Vet Scand 23:466-467


  1. Hanssen I (1982) Effect of natural feed, antibiotics, tannin, diphenyliodonium- chloride and salicylic acid supplement on plasma uric acid concentration in captive willow ptarmigan (Lagopus l. lagopus). Acta Vet Scand 23:468-470


  1. Hanssen I, Ness J (1982) Chick nutrition and mortality in captive willow ptarmigan (Lagopus l. lagopus). Acta Vet Scand.23:456-465


  1. Hanssen I (1982) Nephritis and uric acid diathesis in captive willow ptarmigan (Lagopus l. lagopus). Effect of feed protein concentration and grass meal admixture. Acta Vet Scand 23:446-455


  1. Kjekshus JK, Blix AS, Elsner R, Hol R, Amundsen E (1982) Myocardial blood flow and metabolism in the diving seal. Am J Physiol 242:R97-R104


  1. Klanndorf H, Stokkan KA, Sharp PJ (1982) Plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels during the development of photorefractoriness in willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus) exposed to different photoperiods. Gen Comp Endocrinol 47:64-69


  1. Ringberg T, Aakvag A (1982) The diagnosis of early pregnancy and missed abortion in European and Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus and Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus). Rangifer 2:26-30


  1. Hanssen I, Ness J, Steen JB (1982) Parental nutrition and chick production in captive willow ptarmigan (Lagopus l. lagopus). Acta Vet Scand 23:528-538


  1. Hanssen I (1982) Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in captive black grouse (Tetrao lyrurus) and willow ptarmigan (Lagopus l. lagopus). Acta Vet Scand 23:622-623


  1. Hanssen I (1982) Nutrition of tetraonids in captivity. J World Pheasant Ass VII, pp???


  1. Reimers E, Ringberg T, Sørumsgård R (1982) Body composition of Svalbard reindeer. Can J Zool 60:1812-1821


  1. Carey FG, Kanwisher JW, Brazier O, Gabrielsen GW, Casey JC, Pratt Jr HL (1982) Temperature and activities of a white shark (Carcarodon carcharias). Copeia 2:245-260





  1. Kanwisher J, Gabrielsen GW, Kanwisher N (1981) Free and forced diving in birds. Science 211:717-719


  1. Kjekshus JK, Blix AS, Elsner R, Millard R, Hol R (1981) The multifactorial approach to myocardial salvage. The experience from diving seals. Acta Med Scand Suppl 651, 210:49-56


  1. Mortensen A, Tindall AR (1981) Caecal decomposition of uric acid in captive and free ranging willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus). Acta Physiol Scand 111:129-133


  1. Mortensen A, Tindall AR (1981) On caecal synthesis and absorption of amino acids and their importance for nitrogen recycling in willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus). Acta Physiol Scand 113:465-469


  1. Myhre G, Ursin H, Hanssen I (1981) Corticosterone and body temperature during acquisition of social hierarchy in the captive willow ptarmigan (Lagopus l. lagopus). Z Tierpsychol 57:123-130


  1. Parker H (1981) Duration of fertility in willow ptarmigan hens after separation from the cock. Ornis Scand 12:186-187


  1. Parker H (1981) Renesting biology of Norwegian willow ptarmigan. J Wildl Manage 45:858-864


  1. Ringberg TM, White RG, Holleman DF, Luick JR (1981) Prediction of carcass composition in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) by use of selected indicator bones and muscles. Can J Zool 59:583-588


  1. Ringberg TM, White RG, Holleman DF, Luick JR (1981) Body growth and carcass composition of lean reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) from birth to sexual maturity. Can J Zool 59:1040-1044


  1. Steen JB, Parker H (1981) The egg-"numerostat". A new concept in the regulation of clutch size. Ornis Scand 12:109-110


  1. Larsen T, Myhre K, Vik-Mo H, Mjøs OD (1981) Adipose tissue perfusion and fatty acid release in exercising rats. Acta Physiol Scand 113:111-116


  1. Grøndalen T, Hanssen I (1981) Effekt av store doser vitamin C på osteochondrose hos gris (Effects of large doses of vitamine C on osteochondrosis in pigs [in Norw]). Nord vet Med 33:423-426





  1. Ringberg T, Nilssen K, Strøm E (1980) Do Svalbard reindeer use their subcutaneous fat as insulation? Proc 2nd Int Reindeer/Caribou Symp, Røros, Norway 1979, pp 392-395


  1. Stokkan KA, Sharp PJ (1980) Seasonal changes in the concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone and testosterone in willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus) with observations on the effects of permanent short days. Gen Comp Endocrinol 40:109-115


  1. Allen HM (1980) The response of willow grouse chicks to auditory stimuli. 3. Recognition of the incubating hen's voice. Behav Processes 5:39-43


  1. Stokkan KA, Sharp PJ (1980) The roles of day length and the testes in the regulation of plasma LH levels in photosensitive and phtorefractory willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus). Gen Comp Endocrinol 41:520-526


  1. Stokkan KA, Sharp PJ (1980) The development of photorefractoriness in willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus) after the suppression of photoinduced LH release with implants of testosterone. Gen Comp Endocrinol 41:527-530


  1. Parker H, Hanssen I (1980) Detrimental effects of cecal defecation in winter roosting willow ptarmigan. Wilson Bull 92:252-253


  1. Myhre G (1980) Social status, external signals and colonic temperature in the captive willow grouse, Lagopus lagopus lagopus. Ornis Scand 11:77-80


  1. Moss G, Hanssen I (1980) Grouse nutrition. Nutr Abstr Rev B 50:555-567


  1. Stokkan KA, Hove K, Carr WR (1980) Plasma concentrations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone in rutting reindeer bulls (Rangifer tarandus). Can J Zool 58:2081-2083


  1. Nilssen KJ, Ringberg T (1980) Seasonal changes in body weight, food intake and thyroxine in free ranging and captive Svalbard reindeer. Proc 2nd Int Reindeer/Caribou Symp, Røros, Norway 1979, pp 329-332


  1. Ringberg T, Reimers E, Søumsgaard R (1980) Growth and seasonal change in organ weights and carcass composition in Svalbard reindeer. Proc 2nd Int Reindeer/Caribou Symp, Røros, Norway 1979, pp 333-340


  1. Blix AS (1980) Temperature regulation and climatic influence on mortality in newborn arctic mammals. Introductory lecture. Proc 2nd Int Reindeer/Caribou Symp, Røros, Norway 1979, pp 360-363


  1. Stokkan KA, Steen JB (1980) Age determined feeding behaviour in willow ptarmigan chicks (Lagopus lagopus lagopus). Ornis Scand 11:75-76







  1. Stokkan K-A (1979) Testosterone and daylength-dependent development of comb size and breeding plumage of male willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus). Auk 96:106-115


  1. Allen HM (1979) The response of willow grouse chicks to auditory stimuli. 2. Synthesized brooding calls attract machine-incubated chicks. Behav Processes 4:23-33


  1. Blix AS, Grav HJ, Ronald K (1979) Some aspects of temperature regulation in newborn harp seal pups. Am J Physiol 236:Rl88-Rl97


  1. Blix AS, Miller LK, Keyes MC, Grav HJ, Elsner R (1979) Newborn northern fur seals (Callhorhinus ursinus) - do they suffer from cold? Am J Physiol 236:R322-R327


  1. Grav HJ, Blix AS (1979) A source of nonshivering thermogenesis in fur seal skeletal muscle. Science 204:87-89


  1. Blix AS, Steen JB (1979) Temperature regulation in newborn polar homeotherms. Physiol Rev 59:285-303


  1. Aulie A, Grav HJ (1979) Effect of cold acclimation on the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscles and liver in young bantam chicks. Comp Biochem Physiol 62A:335-338


  1. Pedersen HC, Steen JB (1979) Behavioural thermoregulation in willow ptarmigan chicks. Ornis Scand 10:17-21


  1. Myhre K, Steen JB (1979) Body temperature and aspects of behavioural temperature regulation in some neonate subarctic and arctic birds. Ornis Scand 10:1-9


  1. Hanssen I (1979) A comparison of the microbiological conditions in the small intestine and caeca of wild and captive willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus lagopus). Acta Vet. Scand 20:365-371


  1. Hanssen I (1979) Micromorphological studies on the small intestine and caeca in wild and captive willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus lagopus). Acta Vet Scand 20:351-364


  1. Stokkan KA (1979) The effect of permanent short days and castration on plumage and comb growth in male willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus). Auk 96:682-687


  1. Myhre G, Ursin H (1979) Flight and defense behaviour in ptarmigan confronted by human observer. Z Tierpsychol 51:398-405


  1. Gabrielsen G, Steen JB (1979) Tachycardia during egg-hypothermia in incubating ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus). Acta Physiol Scand 107:273-277


  1. Hanssen I, Grav HJ, Steen JB, Lysnes H (1979) Vitamin C deficiency in growing willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus). J Nutr 109:2260-2276


  1. Allen HM (1979) Auditory and visual cues in the initiation of willow grouse brooding periods. Astarte 12:27-30


  1. Tindall AR (1979) The innervation of the hind gut of the domestic fowl. Br Poult Sci 20:473-480





  1. Grammeltvedt R (1978) Atrophy of a breast muscle with a single fibre type (M. pectoralis) in fasting willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus l.). J Exp Zool 205:195-204


  1. Hove K, Steen JB (1978) Blood flow, calcium deposition and heat loss in reindeer antlers. Acta Physiol Scand 104:122-128


  1. Myhre K (1978) Behavioural temperature regulation in neonate chick of bantam hen (Gallus domesticus). Poultry Sci 57:1369-1375


  1. Allen HM, Stokkan KA, Stalsberg H (1978) Egg incubation by a willow grouse cock. Astarte 11:89-91


  1. Allen HM, Ness J (1978) The fate of abnormal eggs in nests of captive willow grouse hens (Lagopus l. lagopus). Astarte 11:89-91


  1. Grammeltvedt R, Steen JB (1978) Fat deposition in Spitzbergen ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus hyperboreus). Arctic 31:496-498


  1. Mortensen A, Tindall A (1978) Uric acid metabolism in the caeca of grouse (Lagopus lagopus). J Physiol 284:159-l60


  1. Ursin H, Blix AS, Rosseland S (1978) Subjects and the methods used in the field phase of the experiment. In: The psychobiology of stress: A study of coping men. Ursin H, Baade E, Levine S (eds) pp 23-33. Academic Press, New York


  1. Halse K, Blix AS, Ellertsen B, Ursin H (1978) Development of performance and fear experience. In: The psychobiology of stress: A study of coping men. Ursin H, Baade E, Levine S (eds) pp 41-47. Academic Press, New York


  1. Hansen KR, Stoa KF, Blix AS, Ursin H (1978) Urinary levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine in parachutist trainees. In: The psychobiology of stress: A study of coping men. Ursin H, Baade E, Levine S (eds) pp 63-74. Academic Press, New York


  1. Strømme S, Wikeby P, Blix AS, Ursin H (1978) Additional heart rate. In: The psychobiology of stress: A study of coping men. Ursin H, Baade E, Levine S (eds) pp 83-89. Academic Press, New York


  1. Hove K (1978) Insulin secretion in lactating cows: response to glucose infused intravenously in normal, ketonemic and starved animals. J Dairy Sci 61:1407-1413


  1. Hove K, Halse K (1978) Absence of feeding-induced variations in plasma insulin in hypoglycaemic-ketonemic cows. Acta vet Scand 19:215-228


  1. Hove K (1978) Maintenance of lactose secretion during acute insulin deficiency in lactating goats. Acta Physiol Scand 103:173-179


  1. Hove K (1978) Effects of hyperinsulinemia on lactose secretion and glucose uptake by the goat mammary gland. Acta Physiol Scand 104:422-430





  1. Rødsæther MC, Olafsen J, Raa J, Myhre K, Steen JB (1977) Copper as an initiating factor of vibriosis (Vibrio anguillarum) in eel (Anguilla anguilla). J Fish Biol 10:17-21


  1. Aulie A (1977) The effect of intermittent cold exposure on the thermoregulatory capacity of bantam chicks, Gallus domesticus. Comp Biochem Physiol 56A:545-549


  1. Gjesdal Å (1977) Social rank, mating and egg fertilization in willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus lagopus). Poultry Sci 56:41-44


  1. Gjesdal Å (1977) External markers of social rank in willow ptarmigan. Condor 79:279-281


  1. Allen HM (1977) Abnormal parental behaviour of captive male willow grouse (Lagopus l. lagopus). Ibis, 119, 199-201


  1. Allen HM (1977) The response of willow grouse chicks to auditory stimuli. 1. Preference for hen grouse calls. Behav Processes 2:27-32


  1. Gabrielsen G, Kanwisher J, Steen JB (1977) "Emotional" bradycardia: A telemetry study on incubating willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus). Acta Physiol Scand 100:255-257


  1. Kjekshus JK, Blix AS (1977) How seals avoid myocardial infarction during diving. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 37:95-98


  1. Allen HM, Parker H (1977) Willow ptarmigan remove broken eggs from the nest. Auk 94:612-613


  1. Boggs C, Norris E, Steen JB (1977) Behavioural and physiological temperature regulation in young chicks of the willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus). Comp Biochem Physiol 58A:371-372


  1. Allen HM, Boggs C, Norris E, Doering M (1977) Parental behaviour of captive willow grouse (Lagopus l. lagopus). Ornis Scand 8:175-183


  1. Myhre K, Steen JB (1977) The effect of plasma proteins on the capillary permeability in the rete mirabile of the eel (Anguilla vulgaris L). Acta Physiol Scand 99:98-104


  1. Sund T (1977) A mathematical model for counter-current multiplication in the swim-bladder. J Physiol 267:670-696


  1. Steen JB, Sundt T (1977) Gas deposition by counter-current multiplication in the eel swim-bladder; experimental verification of a mathematical model. J Physiol 267:697-702


  1. Myhre KJ, Steen JB (1977) The effect of plasma proteins on the capillary permeability in the rete mirabile of the eel (Anguilla vulgaris L). Acta Physiol Scand 99:98-104






  1. Aulie A (1976) The pectoral muscles and the development of thermoregulation in chicks of willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus). Comp Biochem Physiol 53A:343-346


  1. Aulie A (1976) The shivering pattern in an arctic (willow ptarmigan) and a tropical bird (bantam hen). Comp Biochem Physiol 53A:347-350


  1. Blix AS, Kjekshus JK, Enge I, Bergan A (1976) Myocardial blood flow in the diving seal. Acta Physiol Scand 96:277-280


  1. Messelt E, Blix AS (1976) The LDH of the frequently asphyxiated beaver (Castor fiber). Comp Biochem Physiol 53B:77-80


  1. Tindall A (1976) Hind gut function in the grouse (Lagopus lagopus). Comp Biochem Physiol. 54B:145-147


  1. Berg T, Steen JB (1976) Proteolytic activity in ptarmigan muscle. Comp Biochem Physiol 54B:145-147


  1. Blix AS (1976) Metabolic consequences of submersion asphyxia in mammals and birds. Biochem Soc Symp 41:169-178


  1. Bjarghov RE; Fjellheim P Hove K, Jacobsen E, Skjenneberg S, Try K (1976) Nutritional effects on serum enzymes and other blood constituents in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Comp Biochem Physiol 55A:187-193


  1. Raa J, Moen P, Steen JB (1976) A nutrition dependent antimicrobial principle in tissue of willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus). J Sci Fd Agric 37:773-776


  1. Grav HJ, Blix AS (1976) Brown adipose tissue - a factor in the survival of harp seal pups. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 54:409-412


  1. Hanssen I, Parker H (1976) Throat obstruction as a mortality factor among willow ptarmigan chicks. Wilson Bull 88:353


  1. Aulie A, Steen JB (1976) Thermoregulation and muscular development in cold exposed willow ptarmigan chicks. (Lagopus lagopus l.). Comp Biochem Physiol 55A:291-293


  1. Blix AS, Rettedal A, Stokkan K-A (1976) On the elicitation of the diving responses in ducks. Acta Physiol Scand 98:478-483


  1. Tindall A (1976) Hind gut fermentation in the domestic fowl. Comp Biochem Physiol 53C:83-89


  1. Myhre K, Steen JB, Stray-Pedersen S (1976) The effect of serotonin and transcapillary pressure in the rete mirabile of the eel (Anguilla vulgaris L.). Acta Physiol Scand 98:200-208


  1. Strømme SB, Blix AS (1976) Indirect evidence for arterial chemoreceptor reflex facilitation by face immersion in man. Aviat Space Environ Med 47:597-599





  1. Hanssen I (1975) Listeriosis among willow grouse in captivity. Nord Vet Med 27:37-41


  1. Aulie A, Moen P (1975) Metabolic thermoregulatory responses in eggs and chicks of willow ptarmigan. Comp Biochem Physiol 51A:605-609


  1. Hanssen I (1975) Pulmonary phycomycosis in captive rock ptarmigan and willow ptarmigan chicks. Acta Vet Scand 16:134-136


  1. Myrberget S, Norris C, Norris E (1975) Grit in Norwegian Lagopus spp. Norw J Zool 23:205-212


  1. Blix AS, Grav HJ, Ronald K (1975) Brown adipose tissue and the significance of the venous plexuses in pinnipeds. Acta Physiol Scand 94:133-135


  1. Norris E, Norris C, Steen JB (1975) Regulation and grinding ability of grit in the gizzard of Norwegian willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus). Poultry Sci 54:1839-1843


  1. Myhre K, Cabanac M, Myhre G (1975) Thermoregulatory behaviour and body temperatur in chicks of willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus lagopus). Poultry Sci 54:1174-1179


  1. Blix AS, Messelt EB, Grav HJ (1975) Differential effects of temperature on activity of LDH from seal and sheep skin. Acta Physiol Scand 95:77-82


  1. Blix AS (1975) The importance of asphyxia for the development of diving bradycardia in ducks. Acta Physiol Scand 95:41-45


  1. Hove K, Jacobsen E (1975) Renal excretion of urea in reindeer. Effect of nutrition. Acta Vet Scand 16:513-519


  1. Hol R, Blix AS, Myhre HO (1975) Selective redistribution of the blood volume in the diving seal (Pagophilus Groenlandicus) Rapp P-V Reun Cons Int Explor Mer 169:423-432


  1. Aulie A (1975) Two respiratory patterns in the budgerigar during flight at different ambient temperatures. Comp Biochem Physiol 52A:81-84





  1. Grav HJ, Blix AS, Paasche A (1974) How do seal pups survive birth in arctic winter? Acta Physiol Scand 92:427-429


  1. Blix AS, Berg T (1974) Arterial hypoxia and the diving responses of ducks. Acta Physiol Scand 92:566-568





  1. Berg T, Blix AS (1973) Distribution of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes in rat liver cells. Nature, New Biology 245:239-240

Arctic chronobiology and physiology

Arctic Chronobiology & Physiology research group
Department of Arctic and Marine Biology
UiT – The Arctic University of Norway. Tromsø NO-9037, Norway
+47 77 64 47 92
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