What is Open Access?
Why Open Access?
How Open Access?
Gold Open Access
What is Open Access (OA)?
Open Access means that all those who have access to the Internet can also gain access to reading and making use of scientific papers.
Why Open Access?
- want your research to be utilised to a higher and more rapid degree by professionals, within education, administration and business development worldwide
- want to achieve more readers and thereby a higher number of citations, and to contribute to informing public debate, influencing human behaviour and fulfilling both your personal social responsibility and that of the Arctic University of Norway
- know that an increasing number of parties that fund your own research and that of your co-authors demand that the research they are funding is made accessible (Open Access), and that they are increasingly enforcing this requirement by, for example, refusing to pay project funding to projects that do not meet the OA requirements
How to achieve Open Access?
There are two main routes and one auxiliary route towards achieving Open Access:
1. Self-archiving ("Green OA")
You make a copy of your article available in Munin.
Most articles can be made available in this way, most frequently not the published version but the most recent manuscript version subsequent to peer reviews. Upload this manuscript to CRIStin. The University Library will carry out quality assurance to make sure the article can be made available online or will contact you to ask for a different version.
Self-archiving is free of charge.
2. Open Access publishing ("Gold OA")
You publish your article in a journal that in makes all articles openly accessible.
There are numerous journals that provide this service. Approximately 10,000 such journals were registered at the end of August 2014. Many of these journals do not charge for publication, although a number of the major and most important journals will charge a fee. You may have to pay an "Article Processing Charge" or APC that ranges from several hundred dollars to USD 5,000.
Aside from Open Access and payment for publication, these journals use the same methods as the traditional journals with which you will already be familiar.
3. Purchasing Open Access for individual articles in subscription journals ("Hybrid publication")
A number of subscription journals allow you to purchase open access for your article so that it is available for free in the journal. In general, your article will then be as freely accessible as an article in a Gold Open Access journal.
Due to the high costs of this model and the fact that in truth you are most probably paying twice for the same service – subscription and purchasing open access – the fund does not support this type of publication. Neither does the Research Council of Norway.
Self-archiving – procedure
The most important step to take for self-archiving is the preliminary work:
- Gain the consent of co-authors for self-archiving of the article as soon as you agree to cooperate on the article (example on consent request)
- Make sure you have access to/retain the most recent manuscript version you sent to the journal – this is as a rule the version you are allowed to make accessible on Munin
You can obviously also arrange this at a later date, but experience has shown that it is more effective to organise this at an early stage. You are not required to document that you have clarified and agreed upon self-archiving with your co-authors.
Once the article is published (immediately!), you locate the article in CRIStin, click on the button to "Submit full text document", click on the relevant fields that appear and upload the file. If a file name appears at the top of the page when you click on the button, it is most likely that one of your co-authors has already self-archived the article. You will be able to see who has uploaded the file.
In general, the job is now completed. However, we recommend that you read the information on subject headings, link to subject and funding to make sure this is all correct and make any amendments or add information as required.
Once the University Library receives the article, the Library staff will check Sherpa/RoMEO to find information on what the journal allows and whether the version you have submitted can be utilised. If the version you have submitted cannot be utilised, the Library staff will contact you for a different version. If the journal allows utilisation of the published version, the University Library will normally download the online version and make use of that version instead of the manuscript version you have submitted.
The University Library then adds subject headings, proofreads the information from CRIStin and adds for example links to the published version, so that any readers who find your manuscript but who have access to the published version, will be taken to the published version. Subsequently and providing the publisher does not require a few months of waiting – in which case the University Library will wait until the deadline has expired – the article is made accessible to a worldwide public via Munin and the network of which Munin is a part.
You can use Munin to see if any readers have found your article by going to the main page for the article in Munin and opening the menu item entitled "Show statistics" at the bottom right-hand corner of the page.
Gold Open Access – procedure
If you want to publish in a Gold Open Access journal, the journal must be registered by two bodies:
1. Norwegian Social Science Data Services (NSD) – quality assurance
The journal must have level 1 or 2 approval in the NSD's register of publication channels, so that it is taken into consideration when publication points are being counted and the Arctic University of Norway is evaluated for funding. What to check with the NSD
In the table of publications, if the journal is specified with "-" in the Scientific Level column, this means that the journal has been assessed and (provisionally) not approved for publication points. If you cannot find the journal on the NSD's lists, but want to publish in the journal, you can propose the journal for assessment using the "Submit proposal" link in the menu on the left-hand side.
Please note that a high number of journals claim to have quality assessments, but fail to do the job properly (or at all) and are only interested in charging a fee. Having your article published in such journals may have a negative impact on the general opinion of you as a researcher. You should therefore never publish articles in a journal that does not have Scientific Level 1 or 2 with the NSD, unless it is a non-scientific journal with which you are familiar and where you want to publish your article for dissemination purposes – for example the Arctic University of Norway's own journal, Ottar. If in doubt, ask the University Library for advice.
2. DOAJ – security for Open Access
Journals must also be registered with the Directory of Open Access Journals, DOAJ. When registered in this database, you can be sure that the journal meets reasonable requirements for classification as OA. One requirement is that all articles in the journal shall be Open Access. Hybrid journals (where payment is made to make individual articles Open Access) will therefore not be found in the DOAJ.
How to find a relevant OA journal?
You can search in the DOAJ for journals by subject, but this list does not specify whether the journal has level 1 or 2 approval by the NSD. You can use the NSD to find out whether a journal is Open Access once you have found the journal (you can search by subject and by level on the NSD website).
We are currently working to improve the way in which both NSD and CRIStin illustrate the options for both OA and self-archiving, so this information is more effective and easy to understand.
I have found an OA journal where I want to publish an article. What do I do now?
If the research on which your article is based has been funded by the Arctic University of Norway or the Research Council of Norway, you should submit an application to receive cover for any publication fees to the University's publication fund. You can open the application form by clicking on this link
The form is easy to fill in and you send it directly from Word (does not require a signature, scanning etc.) to the email addresses specified at the top of the form. You will normally receive a reply the same day or, at the latest, the following day. Do not wait until you have submitted the article for publication to apply for cover of the publication fee. It is recommended to find out whether you will receive cover from the fund before spending the money. We know from experience that not all applications are successful.
Once you have received a reply from the fund, you can submit your article to the journal. Follow any instructions you receive from the fund relating to codes etc. to be used when you submit the article. If the article is accepted and published, the article (normally the published version) shall be uploaded to CRIStin so that it is also accessible via Munin.
If your research has received funding from other bodies – the EU, NIH, Wellcome Trust – the University fund takes the position that those bodies that have funded the research must also assume responsibility for funding the final stage of the research process, publication. You must therefore primarily find finances for publication from your project budget. If the project has been completed and there are no funds remaining on the project budget or your funding provider refuses to pay the publication fee, you can submit an application to the publication fund.
All correspondent authors who are linked to the Arctic University of Norway so that the article is partly or fully registered as linked to the University in CRIStin may apply for funding from the publication fund. The conditions that apply here are that the correspondent author specifies the Arctic University of Norway as (one of several) address(es) on the article.
The fund only deals with correspondent authors who are considered to be the University's authors – but will cover the publication fee for all authors if the article meets with requirements.
Once the article has been published, you have to upload it to CRIStin so that it can also be made accessible via Munin. This will increase accessibility of the article and the number of readers, and you will be making a contribution towards profiling the activities of the University. The bodies that funded your research will only be able to see that you have met their requirements for OA if you self-archive via CRIStin.
More on Open Access
Link to other articles on Open acces in the Flipboard magazine.