Viral diseases are a continuous problem for the fish industry. In a manner similar to humans, fish can be protected from specific diseases by vaccination. However, while similar to humans in many ways, the fish immune system is more primordial and rely heavily on innate components, including an intriguing population of unconventional or innate-like (i) T cells to fight pathogens. Innate T cell defense in fish (iTD) is a project that aims to describe the mechanisms governing the development and functions of Atlantic salmon MHC class I-like restricted iT cells to improve fish vaccines. Using innovative technologies including CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, MHC tetramer technologies and next-generation sequencing we focuse on the following themes:
- The roles of unconventional/ iT cells in Atlantic Salmon cell-mediated immunity
- Identification and characterization of MHC class I-like molecules involved in unconventional/ iT cell development and function
Innate T cells: Innate (i) T cells constitute a sub-population of T cells with a semi-invariant TCR that can detect and respond to several different viral infections. Unlike adaptive T cells that are uniquely specific to distinct peptides, iT cells recognize conserved molecular patterns. In addition, as iT cells do not need to undergo clonal expansion before becoming effector cells they respond early (within hours) following pathogenic challenge.Depending on the strength of the activation signal (i.e presence or absence of co-stimulatory signals) iT cells can secrete regulatory cytokines. Thus, iT cells can have a significant impact on the subsequent adaptive immune response making them highly suitable targets for vaccines.
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecules: MHC class I-like molecules are a heterogeneous group of genes that differ from MHC class I genes in function, expression pattern and level of polymorphism. In mammals and amphibians certain MHC class I-like molecules present distinct groups of molecular patterns to iT cells
M.S. Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology, University of Uppsala, Sweden. Advisor: Prof. Lars Pilström Ph. D
PhD. Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson Mississippi 2010 Doctoral thesis: IgD positive cell populations in Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Ph.D Advisor: Prof. Melanie Wilson Ph.D
2016-2018 Research Assistant Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA
2011 -2016 Postdoctoral fellowship, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA. Position held under Prof. Jacques Robert Ph.D
2010-2011 Instructor, Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson Mississippi, USA
ORGANIZATION OF SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS
2012 Member of the organizing committe for the North American Comparative Immunology Workshop (NACIW) June 6th-8th, University of Rochester. 56 participants. This meeting brings together established investigators and studnets at all levels that have a common interest in fundamental and applied aspects broadly defined as comparative immunolgy. The meeting is held annualy.
- Lecturer Bio-3609 Basal and Comparative Immunology and MBI-2004 Immunology
- Researcher in the field of fish immunology and vaccinology; focus on unconventional, innate-like T and NKT cells
- Principal Investigator: Trømso Science Foundation Starting Grant (2018 - 2022)
Robert J, Edholm ES, Sanchez J, Torres-Luquis O and De Jesús Andino F. (2017) "Xenopus-FV3 host pathogen interactions and immune evasion". Virology, Nov 511:309-319.
Edholm ES, Rhoo KH and Robert J. Evolutionary aspects of Macrophages polarization in book : ”Macrophage origins and function and biointervention as part of Results and problems in cell differentiation”. Ed. Malgorzata Kloc, Springer, In press DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-54090-0_1
Robert J, De Jesús Andino F, Banach M, Rhoo KH, Edholm ES. (2017) ”Evolutionary Perspective of Tumorigenesis and Antitumor Immunity: A Comparative Approach" in book: Ecology and Evolution of Cancer, pp.119-135. Ed. Sara Tenney, Academic press, Elsevier, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-804310-3.00009-0.
Banach M, Edholm ES and Robert J (2016) "Exploring the functions of nonclassical MHC class Ib genes in Xenopus laevis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system" (2017) Dev. Bio June 426:261-269.
Haynes-Gilmore N, M Banach, E Brown, R Dawed, ES Edholm, K Minsoo & J Robert (2015) "Semi-Solid Tumor model in Xenopus laevis/gilli cloned tadpoles for intravital study of neovascularization, immune cells and melanophore infiltration", Dev. Bio, 15 (2) 205-212.
De Jesús Andino F, Grayfer L, Chen G, Chinchar VG, Edholm ES and Robert J. (2015) "Characterization of Frog virus 3 knockout mutants lacking putative virulence genes" Virology Nov 485:162-70.
ES Edholm, FA De Jesus, VG Chinchar and J Robert (2015) "Ranavirus host immunity and immune evasion" In Ranaviruses: Lethal Pathogens of Ectothermic Vertebrates", Ed. MJ Gray and VG Chinchar, 10.1007/978-3-319-13755-1
Grayfer L, ES Edholm & J Robert (2015) " Mechanisms of amphibian macrophage development: characterization of the Xenopus laevis colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor " Int. J. Developmental Biology doi: 10.1387/ijdb.140271jr
Robert J, L Grayfer, ES Edholm, B Ward and A De Jesus (2014) "Inflammationinduced reactivation of the ranavirus Frog Virus 3 in asymptomatic Xenopus laevis ", PLOS ONE, Nov 12 (11):doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112904
Moulana M, EB Taylor, ES Edholm, SMA Quiniou, M Wilson & E Bengtén (2014) "Identification and characterization of TCR! and TCR" chains in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus" Immunogenetics, Oct 66(9-10):545-561.
Haynes-Gilmore N, M Banach, ES Edholm, E Lord and J Robert (2014) "A Critical role of nonclassical MHC in tumor immune evasion in the amphibian Xenopus model" Carcinogenesis, Aug: 35(8):1807-1813.
Edholm ES and J Robert (2013) "Recent Research Progress and Potential Uses of the Amphibian Xenopus as a Biomedical and Immunological Model System" Special issue, Resources. (2): 167-183.
Nedelkovska H, ES Edholm, N Haynes and J Robert (2012) "Effective RNAi-mediated β2-microglobulin loss of function by transgenesis in Xenopus laevis" Biology Open, (3): 335-342.
Edholm ES, M Wilson and E Bengtén (2011) "Immunoglobulin light chains (IgL) in ectothermic vertebrates" Special Issue Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 35 (9): 906-915.
Wallace K, S Richards, P Dhillon, A Weimer, ES Edholm, E Bengtén, M Wilson, J N Martin & B LaMarca (2011) "CD4+ T helper cells stimulated in response to placental ischemia mediate hypertension during pregnancy" Hypertension, 57 (5): 949-955.
Quiniou SM, M Sahoo, ES Edholm, E Bengtén and M Wilson (2011) "Channel catfish CD8a and CD8b co-receptors: characterization, expression and polymorphism" Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 30 (3): 894-901.
Edholm ES, E Bengtén and M Wilson (2011) "Insight into the function of IgD" Special Issue Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 35 (12): 1309-1316.
Edholm ES, ED. Hudgens, D Tompkins, M Sahoo, B Burkhalter, NW Miller, E Bengtén and M Wilson (2010) "Characterization of anti-channel catfish gL σ monoclonal antibodies" Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology", 135: 325-328.
Edholm ES, E Bengtén, JL Stafford, M Sahoo, EB Taylor, NW Miller and M Wilson (2010) "Identification of two IgD+ B cell populations in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus" Journal of Immunology, 185 (7): 4082-4094.
Chen K, W Xu, M Wilson, B He, NW Miller, E Bengtén, ES Edholm, PA Santini, P Rath, A Chiu, M Cattalini, J Litzman, J Bussel, B Huang, A Meini, K Riesbeck, C Cunningham-Rundles, A Plebani and A Cerutti (2009) "Immunoglobulin D enhances immune surveillance by activating antimicrobial, proinflammatory and B cell-stimulating programs in basophils" Nature Immunology 10 (8): 889-898.
Edholm ES, M Wilson, M Sahoo, NW Miller, L Pilström, NE Wermenstam and E Bengtén (2009) "Identification of IgL σ and IgL λ genes in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and IgL λ genes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua" Immunogenetics 61 (5): 353-370.
Sahoo M, ES Edholm, JL Stafford, E Bengtén, NW. Miller and M Wilson. (2008) "B cell receptor accessory molecules in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus" Developmental and Comparative Immunology 32 (11): 1385-1397.
Takano T, Z Sha, E Peatman, J Terhune, H Liu, H Kucuktas, P Li, ES Edholm, M Wilson & Z Liu (2008) "The two channel catfish intelectin genes exhibit highly differential patterns of tissue expression and regulation after infection with Edwardsiella ictaluri" Developmental and Comparative Immunology 32(6): 693-705.
Edholm ES, JL Stafford, SM Quiniou, G Walbieser, NW Miller, E Bengtén and M Wilson (2007) "Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, CD4-like molecules" Developmental and Comparative Immunology 31(2): 172-187.
Complete List of Published Work in MYBibliography: https://www.ncbi.gov/sites/myncbi/ 10CbqYFRj8fAr/bibliography/51097328/public/?sort=date&direction=ascending